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Use of Proactive Approaches In Early Childhood: Jasons Case Study Assessment Answer

  1. Read the following case study and answer the question that follows: It is 8:30 a.m. in Mrs. Nelson's early childhood program. Jason, a four-year-old, comes running in yelling, “I’m here!” On his way across the room, he knocks over Sarah's tower of blocks with his arms because they are spread out like airplane wings. He then moves on to the child-size workbench, where he decides to stop and pound some nails with a hammer. Not satisfied, he wanders off to the block area where he finds a fire truck on a shelf above his head. As he pulls the fire truck off the shelf, it drops to the floor, hitting his foot. He yells "ouch" loudly and hops around. At 8:40 a.m., Mrs. Nelson tells the children to put away what they have been using and come to the rug for circle time. Jason turns away and looks out the window. When Mrs. Nelson comes to tell Jason to join the other children, he kicks over a LEGO® house another child had built and throws his body on the floor screaming, "no!" Mrs. Nelson places Jason in time out as the other children complete clean up. It is now 8:50 a.m., and the children are seated on their rugs in the circle area. After five minutes in time out, Jason is invited to come join the other children in the circle, which he does. As Timothy walks to the window to report the weather, Jason blurts out, "It's sunny, sunny, sunny." Mrs. Nelson reminds Jason that it's Timothy's turn to talk, but Jason continues to interrupt. Each time, Mrs. Nelson stops the activity and says, "Jason, it's not your turn to talk." This approach does not appear to impact Jason's behavior, for he continues to disrupt the circle activities by talking or by making noises at inappropriate times. 

Question 1: Many children are impulsive, oppositional, and have inappropriate peer interactions. How can early childhood educators use proactive approaches to prevent some of the problems these children experience and create? (450 to 500 words) 

Question 2: You as a teacher need to counsel the parents on the following topics. Each answer should not exceed 150 words 

a. First day separation anxiety 

b. How to use computer effectively at home 

c. Story telling as bed-time bonding

Q3. Describe in brief the concept Reggio’s Emilia’s approach of teaching. List the key features of Reggio Emilia’s system. Explain any 3 features with examples. (600 words)

Q1. How to attempt the case study? Here you need to observe the case as it requires studying. Many children are irritated and agitated like Jason. They can be as impulsive and can have oppositional peer interactions. As an early educator how can you use proactive approaches to prevent some of the problems these children experience and create so that teaching and learning becomes conducive for teacher as well as the learners.

 Q2. How To attempt the short notes on: 

a. First day separation anxiety 

b. How to use computer effectively at home

 c. Story telling as bed-time bonding

Here you need to attempt the answer on every short note within 150 words in your own way. At the most each answer can have 50 words more. Prefer to address the answer in your own way.


Jason’s case study

Q1. Many children are impulsive, oppositional, and have inappropriate peer interactions. How can early childhood educators use proactive approaches to prevent some of the problems these children experience and create? (450 to 500 words) 


The proactive approaches for children who are oppositional, impulsive and show inappropriate peer interactions are as follows: 

Behavioural Analysis: In evaluating patterns which need to be modified in young children, the A-B-C paradigm of behaviour analysis could be very helpful. A reflects the antecedent, which indicates the circumstances or stimulus before a behaviour occurs; B is for the stimulus behaviour or reaction; and C is the behavioural consequence (Fombonne, 2020). Such principles form a behaviour modification approach called applied behaviour analysis (ABA). Applied behaviour analysis (ABA) focuses on changing operationally specified and measurable behaviours (Rodgers, 2020). Via systemic modulation of environmental variables, targeted behaviours are changed, transformed, improved, or reduced. Behavioural responses may be altered by modifying prior factors such as contextual circumstances such as specific rules of the school or by manipulating the outcome that accompanies a behavioural reaction such as attention from teachers. 

The antecedent sets the foundation for the emergence of a similar reaction, while the effect affects the possibility that the action will raise or decrease in the future. Challenging or problematic behaviour such as Jason's may involve any behaviour that is destructive, harmful to the child or others, inhibits learning from taking place, or creates property harm (Pitts, 2020). It is the duty of educators to educate children with a wide variety of disabilities, but many are not trained to cope with complex behaviours. In fact, early childhood educators are seeing a growth in children who display problematic behaviours because of the ADA and IDEA enforced integration of children with disabilities.

ADA and IDEA: A new civil rights bill, the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), came into practice in 1992. This act specifies that in government housing, persons with disabilities are entitled to civil treatment (Clark, 2019). Subsequently, there are more disabled pre-schoolers in pre-schools, daycare centres, and family care homes. Many of these children, including Jason, have complicated behaviours. The Persons with Disabilities Education Act is another federal statutory provision for people with disabilities (IDEA) (Zirkel, 2018). The 1997 Concept amendments include a functional review by local school authorities and the implementation of a behavioural Action Strategy for students with special needs when their conduct is a challenge. The integration of the concepts of behavioural therapy into the treatment of these children resulted in functional actions.

Functional Behavioural Assessment: Through evaluating actions and interventions, a functional behavioural test looks at problematic behaviours. Typically, a practical examination consists of interviews, direct assessments and manipulations of the environment. The easiest approach to determine the behaviour of children is to include evaluation and documentation (Opartkiattikul et al., 2016). It helps analyse how children work, how they communicate with their peers, what they practice, how they react to various things in their setting, and also in evaluating the development of children over-time. This includes several steps namely define challenging behaviours, select and identify monitoring settings, select the method of observation, establish data collection systems, evaluate the learning environment as it influences child activity, interviews others, hypothesise the role of the behaviour and develop strategies for behavioural intervention (Paris et al., 2019).

Q2. You as a teacher need to counsel the parents on the following topics. Each answer should not exceed 150 words 


a. First-day separation anxiety: On the first day, I say to parents that I suggest brief goodbyes and lengthy hellos. Goodbye quickly, no longer than 5 minutes. There will also be cries, but we will remain comfortable with the child and let them understand that they are accepted and that they are loved, protected and supported. When parents pick them up, I advise them to wander across the room with the child and take more time in the classroom. Also, as parents, it is useful in visiting the classroom prior to the first-day admission (Hayes, 2017). Without the stress of the parents leaving, this enables the kids to be comfortable with the educators and school atmosphere. The parent would understand and consider the emotions of the child during the time of transition and change. His/her remorse at "missing" the parent is very genuine, and these emotions should be considered to be admitted (Hayes, 2017). At the same time, it is crucial that parents keep optimistic about the situation. 

b. How to use the computer effectively at home: I will advise multiple things to the parents. Firstly, before sitting down with the kids, review gameplay or website. Don't believe that only because the name sounds good, a site or online video game is suitable. Before handing the keys over to the child, find an opportunity to send it a turn yourselves. Secondly, promote exploration as you will instinctively understand the objective and the difficulty of a game as an individual, but the child will not. Avoid the desire to jump in and provide advice. Motivate the child to play the game at their speed, instead. Thirdly, limit the time on the computer. You are going to make the child gently wade in not fall into the shallow end. The early education of a child can encompass a wide range of activities, of which only one component is the computer. For one session, 15 minutes to half-hour would have been more than adequate (Konca & Koksalan, 2017)

c. Storytelling as bed-time bonding: Bedtime storytelling is not just about getting children to sleep; it stimulates the ingenuity of the child and even broadens their imagination (Vasalou et al., 2020). Storytelling creates bonding and thereby develops vocabulary, listening skills and ability to communicate. Bedtime storey telling strengthens the comprehension of the child as parent incorporate new phrases in a specific language and several sentence forms. Although the improvement of communication skills is the obvious aim of storytelling, it is essential for the narrator to involve the child and allow them to react to the storey by asking short story-related queries. Interaction between both the storyteller and the child can be established in this manner, enhancing the learning capacity of the child and communication skills (Krishnaswamy et al., 2017). Stories and drawings go hand in hand to bring new things to the children, such as another animal and a toy. Equally significant are minor details in the story, such as length, shape, and colour.

Q3. Describe in brief the concept Reggio’s Emilia’s approach of teaching. List the key features of Reggio Emilia’s system. Explain any 3 features with examples. (600 words)


Reggio’s Emilia’s approach of teaching- Reggio Emilia approach is a teaching method and pedagogy based on pre-school and primary education. This method is a student-centred, self-directed and constructivist programme that uses self-directed, active learning in contexts guided by relationships. Early childhood studies are intellectually and ideologically endorsed by Reggio Emilia's philosophy of education. Self-centred education lets children understand their true potential by engaging adequately with the environment (Santn & Torruella, 2017). As the instructor just serves to instruct them on content that seems very challenging, the learner is given sufficient time. The Reggio Emilia approach to early childhood development regards young children as people that are fascinated about their environment and have the strong ability to understand from all that affects them. In knowing children and seeking to stimulate development in effective ways, social, social and psychological effects are essential aspects to consider (Edwards & Gandini, 2018). Reggio teachers use techniques that promote self-expression, collaboration, critical reasoning, and problem-solving, such as introducing children to a wide range of educational resources (Santn & Torruella, 2017). Pedagogical works in conjunction with teachers to evaluate what is necessary and beneficial for learners. The Atelierista relates to the educator who in various forms of media, enables early childhood learners to communicate their desires and knowledge (Edwards & Gandini, 2018).

Key features of Reggio Emilia’s system:

  1. Emergent Curriculum
  2. Representational Development
  3. Collaboration
  4. Parents are partners in education
  5. Documentation
  6. Teachers emphasise on the various forms children learn
  7. The environment in the classroom serves as the third teacher (Biroli et al., 2018).

3 features with examples:

Emergent Curriculum: The programme of a classroom derives from children's desires. The subjects in the programme are drawn from relating to learners and their families, and also from activities that children are considered to be fascinating (dinosaur, puddles, and so on) (Nxumalo et al., 2018). For example, in team planning activities, teachers review notes and findings to determine the tasks will be a better fit for children in their classrooms, what resources would be required, and how parents and the group will be motivated in becoming involved. The programme 'emerges' from the children in this way, encouraging the learning experience to be a spiralling transition instead of a linear process (Nxumalo et al., 2018).

Collaboration: To further the cognitive development of a child, the concept of cooperation and collaboration is seen as important. For example, both small and large groups are able to work together to address challenges through conversation, comparisons, discussions, and other significant management skills. In order to foster a balance between a feeling of belonging to the community and a sense of identity, each child's voice could be heard (McNally & Slutsky, 2017). In comparison to working alone, children are collaborators and perform well while they are involved in a group. Reggio Emilia thus encourages working in small groups and is built on the assumption that through communication with parents, peers, and the world surrounding us, children shape themselves. 

The environment in the classroom serves as the third teacher: In the Reggio-Inspired approach, the environment of the classroom, school, and open spaces play an important role. The world is seen as the third teacher and can not only be seen as a representation of the children, educators, or parents, but also a representation of the child's image. The classes in a school influenced by Reggio can be regarded as a living entity and are deliberately arranged to encourage innovative experimentation while facilitating interaction and communication (Miller, 2019). For example, there are also accessible, welcoming spaces equipped with natural furnishings, real-life fabrics, windows, natural lighting and mirrors in Reggio-Inspired classrooms.

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