Transgenerational Trauma With Respect to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Assessment Answer
Contemporary Indigenous Health and Wellbeing
One of the common transgenerational traumas (Sangalang and Vang 2017) is child abuse which causes a cycle of abuse which happens between ongoing generations about racism. This is generally happening because of poverty, torture of family member, a crime file against family, a sudden death of a family member. One of the common forms of transgenerational trauma is historical trauma. The historical trauma can affect a family adversely. At the same time, the main problem under historical trauma is feminism, terrorism, war, slavery etc. Slavery is one of the foremost reasons for transgenerational trauma. There are possible inherits of this trauma. This is undoubtedly a time when no one can experience this single-handedly. It also includes PTSD. It also affects the way parents behave with their children.
Transgenerational trauma with respect to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people
Transgenerational Trauma (Atkinson et al., 2014) is a psychological state where trauma can be transferred between two or more generation gaps. After a generation of survivors who have experienced trauma, their children carry forward their trauma. It not only moves their trauma to their children but also further generation. The beginning of this trauma started with one of the survivors of the trauma, and again, the symptoms are known to tend to manifest as symptoms of PTSD. As this kind of trauma generally transferred to their children, that can be divided into three other parts which are – conflict, communication, cohesion, family, etc. In this article, we would like to describe the condition of the Transgenerational trauma concerning Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.
The Aboriginal and the Torres Strait Islander people means a different group of people. In contrast, aboriginal refers to the original people in Australia (Brown, 2017) and Torres Strait Islander relates to those people who belong to 274 islands in Australia in Torres Strait. According to Atkinson, he has mapped a progression of the transmission of trauma in 6th gen trauma gram which has links with historical events.
The Black Lives Matter is a movement which has made a central strategy and also made social media hashtag, which is considered as the world's most massive social-media hashtag in the history of twitter #BlackLivesMatter. According to a report, the transgenerational trauma harms researchers, advocates since their childhood. It draws a connection between trauma and structural racism. The author found that the conversation between conversation and childhood trauma and race are highly intersected. It was a mixture of racism and Black Lives Matter. So the conflict started since their childhood; thus, it's effect is very long.
The impact of Transgenerational trauma on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders and how the effect is addressed within the CTG policy
Capital Gain or loss Tax is essential in the lives of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders of Australia as it looks into the CGT event and CGT assets that include native lands, forests, aquaculture, and title deeds of these people in Australia. CGT identifies two distinguishing features of streams of capital income from streams of revenue source. Still, these have been the very long impact of the transgenerational trauma among the group as the particular events and assets remain the same. CGT event takes place when the CGT asset is disposed of in the form of gift or sales promotion or if the title deed is transmitted or if the asset is lost or destroyed. There is no change in the implication of the taxation over the years since the time of its introduction into the system to presumably develop the economic conditions of Aboriginal people and Torres Strait Islanders (Hopkins, 2020).
CGT never has any profit from the sales of the asset or any event. CGT event can also enter into the jurisdiction of Protected Lands it any conservation covenant, and this also causes a reduction in the valuation of the assets, and there is a huge capital loss. This has been the law since 1985, and there are no changes in the life of the people who undergo this kind of reduction and loss is seen through the generations. This has caused a massive impact on generations. Now this has reduced to fragmented pieces of land or the cost base at this time is highly reduced, and the capital generation is done through disbursement. Under section 116-20 of ITAA of 1997, the state has to pay all the total sum of the money received or entitled to the Aboriginal or Torres islanders. Still, the market value was not given to the persons in the revival of the event of CGT taking place. These have retrospectively affected the people, and they have seen the predictable changes, not a revival of the taxation paid by their earlier generation and could have been a part larger part of their lives. These are factors that highly intercalate with the social impacts of these people.
The health impact of CGT and transgenerational trauma among the Aboriginals and Torres Strait Islander are as follows-
- CGT has confined the Indigenous people among their territorial range. There is a disparity between the health of the Aboriginals and the Torres Strait islanders. It was observed that these people have shorter life experiences than their non-indigenous counterparts.
- The males have a life expectancy shorter than 10.6 years, and the females have a life expectancy faster than 9.5 years. Because of CGT constraints, it is observed that 70% of the health gap is present among the people, the policy was itself ineffective, but these people took a long time to understand the tactics of the Australian government (Miller et al., 2018).
- Looking at the current scenarios of non-communicable disease among the group is highly prevalent, these people receive the highest rate of cardiovascular diseases which is around 23%, diabetes affected in these population is approximately (12%), mental disorders and trauma is around 10%, chronic pulmonary and respiratory diseases are around 9%, and renal diseases are around 7.6%. But CGT covers the olives of the health of these people, especially by providing facilities required for kidney dialysis and cardio-pulmonary diseases (Johnson et al., 2016).
- There have been no changes among the group with these implications. There are still controversies regarding abortion and childbirth. These are also due to the remoteness and socio-cultural background of society. The report shows that around 43.5% of the indigenous people are addicted to drugs and alcohol and also suffer from severe health complications such as sarcopenic obesity and other critical diseases that are related to kidney, respiratory and skin ailments. So the concepts of CGT have not given them any relief and have pushed into an utter dilemma of contradictions and constraints.
The benefits of an Aboriginal client registering with CTG and its impact on them accessing healthcare
The CTG policy, i.e. cardiotocography monitoring policy is a mandatory minimum requirement of monitoring practices of cardiotocography and staff education in all the states for the maternity services of West Australia, which is publicly funded. Providers of health service and health entities under contract who provide maternity care with the help of public funds this policy. This policy aims at using the recordings of CTG and heart rate and uterine activity at the embryonic stage. The purpose of the monitoring is to ensure the wellbeing of the foetus and suspecting the risks of reducing the morbidity and mortality of the foetus. The aboriginal and Torres strait islander people suffer from transgenerational trauma. There are different mechanisms explained behind the reason for this trauma. Trauma might result from bitter life experiences, adverse experiences in childhood, parenting and family problems impact, the caregiver's activities, physical and mental illness of parents, disjunction, and detachments from society, culture, or extended family. These effects affect the people causing trauma. The aboriginal and Torres strait islander clients need better social care and moral support to come out of the long process of getting traumatised. Transgenerational traumas continue with heredity and inherited trauma affects the coming generation too. Special maternity care is needed in this regard. The CTG policy is for the betterment of maternity care and takes conduct on the overall care of the motherhood. The superior surveillance at the antenatal and intrapartum stage are the key characteristics of CTG and contemporary care of maternity. The aboriginal clients registering with this CTG policy helps to get proper care for the motherhood and the embryo. If the mother gets registered with the CTG policy, she could access the benefits of a regular check-up, which is very necessary for the baby at the fetal stage. This results in the healthy birth of the baby, reducing the chances of trauma. ("WA Health, Government of Western Australia", 2020)
One strategy to improve health outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders people experiencing Transgenerational trauma
Special cares and attention are required by the aboriginal and Torres strait islanders people who are experiencing transgenerational trauma. Nurses who take care of traumatic patients take care of the stress factors. As an RN, I would implement one strategy of stress mitigation to improve the health outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait islanders. In this process, the nurses not only take care of the life stressors of the trauma patients but also interact with the family members to better the process because they are also impacted by it. Transgenerational traumas affect the patient and as well as family members because of the inherited nature of trauma. Transgenerational trauma has different reasons. Treating the aboriginal and Torres strait people, various reasons have been found out. Trauma might be caused by historical events which have transgenerational nature. The people became the victims of the genocidal process of colonisation. Based on a study, on average, six to eight generations are inheriting this traumatic experience in a family. Trauma might cause suffering from life stressors. Racism and other threats are considered in this case. Specific painful life experiences sometimes cause trauma. They are also deprived of proper health and social care and mental health services. Severe childhood experiences also develop trauma in a person. The mitigation of stresses is a good strategy for improving the health outcomes of the affected people. In individual healing or community healing, detection of the cause of the trauma is the first and foremost process. Once the cause of the trauma is detected, the next step is to find out the stress factors which are enhancing the trauma. The stress factors differ from person to person. The stress detection process needs utmost care and observation. Mitigating the stress factors reduces the chances of trauma but the social, emotional, physical and lastly spiritual exposure of the patients is required for the complete cure("Online Nursing Degree Programs | MSN, DNP & Nurse Practitioner Specialties", 2020).
After having a brief discussion of this paper, we get to know that the intergenerational trauma (Marsh et al., 2015) has effects from the schooling service to our family. Several studies have shown that Aboriginal Mental health has not yet acknowledged the psychological impact and about the social policies across the world. The aboriginal people who have strong violence and substance abuse with their family make an adverse effect on society. Thus the result of the mental health practitioner changed their focus from other to aboriginal people, and now they are suffering from personal and systematic issues. We immediately need to acknowledge the sure between intergenerational trauma and the aboriginal people. Giving the complexity for historical trauma for aboriginal people disrupted the international transmission of trauma. This approach is not only helpful for the health domain, but also the domain like education.