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The Media use of the Nigerian Diaspora in Ireland Assessment Answer

Guidelines for MA theses supervised by lecturers of the Department of Media Studies: Objectives, requirements, topics, and workflow .

Objectives and requirements

A MA thesis covers 30 credit points. This equals a workload of about 900 hours and a written text of about 100 pages of (excluding bibliography and appendix). By writing the MA thesis, you should demonstrate that you are able to solve a problem by yourself within a given period of time, based on reviewing the international state of research, discussion of relevant theoretical approaches and applying adequate empirical research methods.

To give you the chance to prove your scientific skills, an empirical part usually needs to be included. Your research design and methods do not have to be “quantitative” – qualitative research methods may also be reasonable. In detail, the following requirements have to be met (modifications due to decisions concerning content or methods can be appropriate or even necessary):

10 to 12 semi-structured interviews of 60 minutes time have to be designed and carried out self-sufficiently at least 100 answered questionnaires of a (partly) standardized survey 400 to 500 coded units of analysis (e.g., news articles) of a content analysis (a codebook of medium complexity with about 30 variables) all other methods and research designs are possible, e.g. observation studies, meta-analysis, secondary analysis, analysis of documents, experimental studies, etc.

A master thesis needs to meet all formal regulations of scientific work. For formatting citations and references, we recommend the APA citation style set up by the American Psychological Association (APA).

The master thesis may be submitted in German or English. For grading the thesis, reviewers will take theoretical and/or methodological innovations (e.g. extent or creation of theories/models, innovative research designs, analysis of not yet empirically investigated scopes) into account, but also the correct and solid use and classification of relevant literature and appropriate implementation of the empirical part, including a clear connection of your own empirical investigation to the international state of research (inter alia by creating research questions and or hypotheses directly linked to theoretical approaches elaborated in the literature review).


The media use of the Nigerian Diaspora in Ireland

1.0 Introduction 

The paper will be investigating the media practises undertaken by the members of Nigerian Diaspora residing in Ireland. The thesis paper will emphasize on their media choices while communicating with each other and evaluate the factors shaping the choice of media over time. It can be noted that the decision making of the media choices has a shifting trend, as it is dependent on individual needs, technological advancement of communication practises and disparities identified in developmental practises amongst the home nation and host nation. An emergent aspect in these circumstances is the mitigating distance through the utilisation of new and traditional media either from individual aspect or convergent perspectives.

1.1 Research Background 

In the modern era, individuals use various forms of media for sharing information amongst one other. While traditional media has its importance, new media and social media can connect with the mass across the globe (Titley, Kerr & King O'Riain, 2010). In context to Nigerian Diaspora, Online media is the most preferred medium allowing them to connect with current affairs and news in the homeland (Adeniyi, 2016). This is because other forms of media such as Television, newspaper and radio are costlier and limited in their approach while managing distance communication. In contrast, new media and social media takes active participation in enabling real-time interactions, sharing, storing and retrieval of information amongst the residents of diasporic regions (Adeniyi, 2016). While conducting the particular research, cognizance shall be prioritised, which takes the initiative of characterising modern-day variants of Media. For example, certain forms of Smart Phone can carry out the functionalities of television, micro recording and music play, which could be dealt by the application of internet and television respectively. Therefore, it can be stated that the lines amongst these forms of media networking are thin, owing to their interwoven applications. In regards to the particular research, the researcher would shed light on the selection of mass media for communicating with individuals in Ireland and family members from the home nation owing to its ability of catering a wider section of audience within a closer proximity. Furthermore, mass media can assist in reaching audiences within a short span of time. The study will also highlight the challenges associated with media use in the diasporic region and propose suitable recommendations for enhancing the effectiveness of information sharing amongst individuals.  

1.2 Research Aims 

The researcher aims to critically analyse the effectiveness of media use amongst the Nigerian Diaspora in Ireland. 

1.3 Research Questions 

Main Research Question

  • What is the effectiveness of mass media use amongst the Nigerian Diaspora in Ireland?

 Sub Questions

  • What are the factors influencing the use of mass media amongst Nigerian Diaspora in Ireland?
  • What are the various mass media channels utilised by Nigerian Diaspora for sharing information in Home Nation and Host Nation?
  • What are the challenges experienced by Nigerian Diasporic communities while accessing various forms of  mass media in Ireland?
  • What are the suitable recommendations that can be proposed for improving mass media use amongst Nigerian Diaspora in Ireland?

1.4 Research Objectives 

  • To evaluate the factors influencing the use of mass media amongst Nigerian Diaspora in Ireland 
  • To demonstrate the various mass media channels utilised by the Nigerian Diaspora to share information in Home Nation and Host Nation 
  • To critically evaluate the challenges experienced by the Nigerian Diasporic communities while accessing various forms of mass media in Ireland 
  • To propose a suitable recommendation for enhancing mass media usage amongst Nigerian Diaspora in Ireland

1.5 Problem statement 

It is a known fact that Nigerian Diaspora is regarded as the most dominant African Group in Ireland. In the modern era, the use of mass media plays a pivotal role in sharing information amongst individuals. However, in regards to Nigerian Diaspora, manipulation of information in various forms of media alters the perceptions of individuals. Furthermore, traditional forms of media have limited access in relating to the occurrence of events in Host Nation (Adeniyi, 2016). While online and social media have the capability of connecting with the mass, information manipulation often contributes towards misinterpretation of information where a specific event is viewed differently by various members of the community (Ademolu, 2018). Therefore, there is an essentiality to address this issue associated proper flow and tampering of information amongst the Nigerian Diaspora in the context of various mass media usage.

1.6 Significance of the study 

The specific study will highlight the factors influencing the mass media use of Nigerian Diaspora in Ireland. The thesis paper will assist in understanding how various forms of mass media channels influence information sharing in diasporic regions. While conducting an in-depth evaluation of the selected topic, the researcher will be able to identify the challenges associated on mass media use, depending on which effective strategies can be formulated for streamlining information sharing amongst Nigerian Diaspora.

2.0 Literature Review 

This section of the thesis will critically emphasize on accumulating secondary data from relevant and credible online sources, which will further be supported by theoretical underpinnings during the context of the study.

2.1 Conceptualisation of media use 

Hur et al. (2017) opined media use as consumption of information by individuals and groups for becoming knowledgeable about the surrounding occurrence of events. Both traditional and new media plays an integral role in disseminating information to individuals. In this context, it can be stated effective media usage assists individuals in managing and accomplishing everyday activities. In comparison to traditional media, social media and the internet have more organic reach owing to its capability of connecting with the mass (Quesenberry & Coolsen, 2019). The discussion forums of various media platforms allow individuals to connect and share ideas and content effectively.

2.2 Factors influencing the use of mass media 

As opined by Adeniyi (2016), accessibility, costing and ease are key factors to be considered while deciding upon the mass media platforms. If a specific media is not accessible to a wider extent, it will automatically limit the level of information sharing and interaction amongst individuals. Ease is another aspect to be considered because a specific form of media may be interesting to a specific individual while the other person may find it difficult to comprehend. For instance, tech-savvy individuals are more comfortable in using social media in comparison to the ones who lack technical expertise. Cost is also an essential aspect to be considered and owing to the rapid expansion of digitalisation, use of social media is mostly desirable owing to its cost-effectiveness and faster delivery of information across the globe (Gao et al. 2020). The nature of the message is also a critical factor as individuals choose mass media depending on the choice of information sharing pattern. 

2.3 Implication of various media channels in establishing personal connectivity and information sharing 

In the modern era, online medium is the most anticipated mass media platform for sharing information on a wider context. Su et al. (2019) stated that the selection of media depends on individual perceptions. Lack of enabling features may result in inconvenience issues during the selection of a media channel. An individual's perspective of intimacy and privacy may also serve as an integral factor in influencing the decision making of individuals in selecting a media channel. However, the use of social media is very much prevalent as it helps to establish an instant interaction with individuals staying far away. Likewise, emailing and telephones are usually used for sharing personal communication with individuals as it is easier to share personal information and feeling in this medium (Shaw, Grainger & Achuthan, 2017). Newspapers and television are often considered for gathering information about the daily occurrence of events and activities. The frequency of information sharing in various media channels depends on the urgency, preference and needs of the individual. 

2.4 Audiovisual impact of media on diasporic region 

Audiovisual medium takes active participation in connecting the imagination of individuals emotionally by closing the distance existing amongst the origin and current locations. Various channels in television play programs in regional languages, which makes a migrant feel connected with the homeland. However, Plank (2017) stated that the audio-visual aspect of the online medium is more flexible by nature as it has a mass appeal. Audiovisual media brings individuals belonging to different within closer proximity. For instance, the BEN television of UK takes active participation airing black related programs, however, they are tailored to the taste of Europeans, thus suggesting the fact that the program is neither subjected to African or Eurocentrism perspective entirely. The transnational perspective of audio-visual media ensures that familiarity and connectivity with the actors in television generate a sense of comfort amongst the individuals (Grant & Kooijman, 2019). Therefore, it can be stated that audiovisual media is used widely in the diasporic region owing to the emotional connectivity of content and visual illustrations.

2.5 Theoretical application 

In regards to the use of media in the global context, the theoretical perspectives are illustrated below: 

Magic Bullet Theory: In accordance with the theory, media messages have a powerful perspective and it is injected within audience minds at a faster rate (DeFleur & DeFleur, 2016). In this context, it could be stated that the mass media messages influence the perception of an individual in the way he thinks about a specific scenario. 

Cultivation theory: The theory suggests that media takes active participation in cultivating the mindset of individuals such that individuals start viewing the world similar to that of television, internet, radio or other forms of media channels. In this context, it can be stated that manipulation of information in several mass media platforms may persuade an individual to think differently regarding a scenario which may not be true always.

Framing theory: Reyes-Sosa et al. (2020) stated that Framing theory is closely connected with the conceptualisation of agenda-setting and its further probes on the fact that media takes the initiative of focusing on specific issues and place it in the mind of individuals from a framed perspective. In this context, it can be stated that the pictures of several incidents are framed within the mind of individuals and the meaning is interpreted in the way several mass media channels wants it to be. 

3.0 Methodological Outline

Research philosophy will be applied by researchers to assess the nature of the research topic and follow appropriate procedure that can help in understanding the subject matter. In the current study, the researcher will apply interpretivism research philosophy as it will allow to interpret the information more effectively, which will support in understanding the media usage of the Nigerian Diaspora in Ireland. It will also support in understanding human perspective and achieving research validity as information obtained under this philosophy are believed to be reliable and credible (Leitch, Hill & Harrison, 2010). 

The research approach will also be considered to build assumptions which can support in understanding the way media is utilised among Nigerian Diaspora in Ireland. In that connection, it can be mentioned that the deductive research approach will be used in the current paper. It will enable the researcher to utilise the existing theories and concepts related to the research topic, thereby, deducing the required information so that objectives of the study can be effectively fulfilled (Soiferman, 2010). The researcher will be using descriptive research design for the particular topic as it conducts an in-depth analysis of the research issues. 

It is to be further pointed out that a qualitative research technique will be applied in the study. It has been effective in understanding the perceptions and opinions of people more closely. In addition, this method will allow the respondents to expand on their response, which will ultimately help in determining the various aspects related to the research topic in an in-depth manner (Jamshed, 2014).

Both primary and secondary data collection methods will be utilised to acquire the required and relevant information. In the case of secondary method, it is to be mentioned that books, journals, articles and internet sources have been accessed to collect information and draw literature review. For collecting the primary information, the semi-structured interview technique will be taken in account. This method will allow respondents to express their views to questions as per their convenience. Moreover, the researcher will be able to ask both close and open-ended questions. 

Purposive sampling will be used as it will enable the researcher to save time and money while gathering the information. Also, by using this sampling technique, the researcher can be able to engage sample size whose response will significantly support to fulfil the purpose of the research study (Etikan, Musa & Alkassim, 2016). The sample size will comprise of 10-12 individuals within the Nigerian Diaspora community participating in semi-structured interview sessions. Each interview will be conducted for around 45-60 minutes. 

4.0 Ethical Considerations

The researcher will be following ethical code of conduct throughout the research study. A voluntary participation will be accepted and the respondents will have the option to pass the questions if they feel uncomfortable. All the personal details of respondents will be kept confidential and will not be shared with any unauthorised person. In addition, it will also be maintained that there are no sign of plagiarism. Therefore, the research study will be presented as an original piece of paper.

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