Socio-Psychological and Economic Impacts of Dementia on Family and Health System Assessment Answer
What are the socio-psychological and economic impacts of dementia on the family and health system?
In the following study, the main sources of socio-psychological and economic impacts of dementia on the health system and the family have been illustrated. The overall study has focused on dementia disease that includes its causes, risk factors, current intervention, and ongoing treatment. Hence, the malnutrition-related to cognitive functions and the nutritional requirement and its importance to the elderly people have been discussed accordingly. Furthermore, the study also illustrates the Australian Dietary guidelines that provide the best accessible scientific evidence of information on the types and qualities of foods that aim to promote well-being and health to fight against chronic disease.
Dementia is the cognitive functioning loss, i.e., remembering, thinking, and cognitive and behavioural abilities to such an extent that it hinders with the activities and day-to-day life of an individual. These functions consist of memory, visual insight, verbal skills, self-management, resolution of problem, and the capability to pay attention and focus on certain things (Duncan & Valenzuela, 2017). A number of individuals with dementia can change their personalities and also cannot hold their sensations. In severity, the ranges of dementia from the minor stage, once the person must be influenced by fully on others for basic activities to survive (Jellinger & Korczyn, 2018).
Types and Stages of Dementia
Several syndromes and causes contribute to the growth of dementia. Neurodegenerative syndromes result in a progressive and irreversible loss of brain functioning and neurons. However, dementia is the most leading causes of death of Australians and stands second in a disease rank. In the year 2016, this disease became the main cause of death of women in Australia and in 2017 it was the third leading cause of death of men. Accounting both the years the death rates were approximately 13,729. As per the research, around 64.5% of all dementia related deaths of Australians females has been found (Coyle-Gilchrist et al., 2016). In Australia, there are over 100 disease that may cause dementia and there are no cures for these of syndromes and hence, the most common causes of dementia includes:
- Alzheimer’s disease- This disease is the most common cause of dementia. However, patients with Alzheimer's disease have tangles and plaques in their brains (Vogt et al., 2017).
- Lewy body dementia- It is also one of the common types of progressive dementia. The common signs include optical illusions, problems in focusing things, and acting out on someone's sleep (Kane et al., 2018).
- Vascular dementia- It is affected by loss to the vessels of that supply blood. Vascular dementia's common symptoms include difficulties with solving of problems, slowed thinking, focus, and association (Kalaria, 0Akinyemi & Ihara, 2016).
Though, the risk of dementia is getting increase according to the age, people in their age of 40 to 50s can also have dementia (Custodio et al., 2017). However, The younger onset dementia is a form of dementia make a diagnosis in people under the age of 65.
Types and Stages of Dementia
Causes of Dementia
Dementia is affected by loss or damage to cells of nerve that is related to the brain. Depending on the brain areas that are affected by the loss or damage, dementia can affect inversely and cause the signs that are not the same (Matioli et al., 2017).
Generally, dementias are collected by means of what they take in general, such as the deposited protein or proteins in the brain or the brain's part that are pretentious. However, some diseases seem like dementias, and they might recover with the treatment (Smith et al., 2018).
Causes of Dementia
Several factors can ultimately contribute to dementia. In Australia, the exact number of people suffered from dementia is yet unknown but it is estimated that in the current year of 2020 are between 400,000 and 459,000 with dementia and with Alzheimer’s disease estimated for up to approx. 70% as per the diagnosed case. It is predictable that the growth and ageing of Australian’s population will lead to an increase of this disease in coming days. Certain aspects like age cannot be transformed, and others can be consigns to lessen the risk.
Prevalence of dementia in Australia
Risk factors that cannot be improved are:
- Family history- with the family history of dementia puts an individual at more risk of increasing the disorder. Hence, some individuals with a family history will develop, and some will not, but tests can be done to define if they have a certain hereditary problems (Rawshani et al., 2018).
- Age- After the age of 65, the risk will increase, and dementia is not a usual part of getting old and can happen in younger persons also.
- Down syndrome- In the intermediate age, several individuals with this disease grow early-start Alzheimer’s disease (Killin et al., 2016).
Risk factors that can be changed are:
- Immunity building- lack of workout increases the threat of dementia. This can be changed by doing regular exercise and following a specific diet to boost immunity.
- Sleep apnea- The one who snores and has incidents where they usually stop inhalation while sleeping might have a changeable memory loss.
- Smoking- It can also increase the risk of progressive dementia and disease of the blood vessel.
- Diabetes- If the diabetes is controlled poorly, then it possibly will increase the threat of dementia.
- Depression- Late-life depression might signify progressive dementia.
Current Intervention of Dementia
In Australia, there is a wide range of support services and social care that exist to help people who suffered from dementia, during the several stages of the disorder. Hence, for the aged people above 65 to get dementia services is My Aged Care. There are also other sources of support and information for people above 65 and they are the local Councils, Alzheimer’s Australia Vic, Your GP, Advisory service and other private agencies. Moreover, the current Interventions of dementia used in the care medication and care of people with dementia could be both pharmacological (drugs) and non-pharmacological.
Pharmacological (Interventions of the drug)
As per the studies, no treatment for dementia has been found, nor any drugs available for disease adjusting to fight for Alzheimer’s disease and the correlated dementias. Relatively merely in certain cases, certain drugs address the signs of dementia by reducing down, for the short term, the development of cognitive damage. Generally, these medications stated to as drugs of anti-dementia that can simply perpetually be approved by a therapeutic doctor, and the high-quality of the medication will mainly be determined by on the substitute type of dementia (Ijaopo, 2017).
Some of the non-pharmacological interventions are:
Cognitive Stimulation Therapy (CST) - It is one procedure of non-pharmacological intervention that is practiced to support individuals with minor to reasonable dementia. Throughout CST, the individual with dementia is asked to partake in therapeutic gatherings with an expert consultant, an expert in relational communication, and dementia care (Orrell et al., 2017).
Reminiscence Therapy- Reminiscence therapy is an involvement allowing an individual with dementia hit into his or her long-term memory and re-experience the past that is generally satisfying practices (Li et al., 2017).
Physical Exercise- This has shown a benefit to the individuals who have no cognitive deficiency. However, exercise is also helpful for individuals with dementia, mainly those who once managed a very energetic life.
Validation Therapy- In this therapy, the consultant efforts to interconnect with the individual with dementia by understanding with his or her approaches and with the significances after that individual’s communication and manners (Sung & Lee, 2016).
Ongoing Treatment of Dementia and its Effectiveness
The basic cause determines the medication of dementia. Neurodegenerative dementias, such as Alzheimer's disease, have no cure, yet some medications can support to protect the brain or manage signs such as behavioral changes or anxiety. Study to improve more treatment preferences is ongoing.
Most importantly, a healthy standard of living that includes regular exercise, eating healthy, and sustaining social interactions, decreases probabilities of increasing chronic diseases and might decrease the number of individuals with dementia (Das et al., 2017).
Suggestions on how to Treatment Dementia
As per the above mentioned ongoing treatment of dementia, it seems that no option to cure for Alzheimer’s disease or dementia. Therefore, it is important to take a precaution regarding the same as regular exercise, eating healthy, and interacting with people for more knowledge to avoid this disease (Gilbertson et al., 2018).
Malnutrition related to Cognitive Functions
Malnutrition is a leading public health issue in Australia. Malnutrition refers to receiving excessively little or too plentiful of certain nutrients that can lead to severe health issues that include underdeveloped growth, eye complications, diabetes, and heart disease (Sharma et al., 2017). However, chronic malnutrition in early stages could lead to poor cognitive function in teenagers at the age of 9 years, as per the Peruvian study in The Lancet. Hence, the older adults living in the Australian community, almost 10% are starving where 40% are said to be with high risk of malnutrition. When they do not meet their requirement of dietary include dementia, several health issues and chronic diseases. In Australian hospitals, malnutrition is expected to affect 35-43% of patients.
Causes of Inadequate Nutrition
The main causes of inadequate nutrition include a poor diet that lacks needed nutrients, a syndrome or treatment that impairs concentration, or both. The body is able to assemble and store some nutrients. Therefore a deficiency cannot be held until the body has been lacking the nutrient for a certain period (Coudenys et al., 2018).
Current interventions to improve nutrition in the elderly with dementia
The suggestion of diet and nutrients with cognitive function, deficiency, and dementia has acknowledged a lot of consideration in the past. Certain micronutrient deficiencies are possibly damaging to the brain, and mechanistic evidence recommends that micro- and macro-nutrients, as well as patterns of dietary, can correlate with the neurodegenerative, provocative, oxidative stress and processes of vascular that underlying dementia (Handley, Bunn & Goodman, 2017). Though, the current interventions to improve nutrition in the elderly with dementia should focus on the Mediterranean diet, which can affect dementia's risk of dementia. Moreover, the Mediterranean diets include the antioxidants with high from the high consumption of fruits and vegetables that might help to protect against a number of the harm to brain cells related with Alzheimer's disease, as well as growing the proteins levels in the brain that look after brain cells from this loss. Infection in the brain is related to Alzheimer's disease (Schelke et al., 2017). But, there are recommendations that the diet reduces the symptoms of this infection. The diet is also related to minor cholesterol levels, which a modern study has proposed may be related to memory and thinking complications.
Reasons why the improvement of nutrition and health are important to elderly people
According to the study, it is said that elderly people are particularly susceptible to malnutrition (Eglseer et al., 2019). This happens for a few causes like:
- Appetite and metabolism slows down with the stage of development;
- Fewer caloric consumption means less chance for nutrients;
- The ability to absorb the nutrients by the body decrease with the age
Need for Nutritional requirement for aged people of Australia
The Australian Dietary Guidelines acclaim the number of standard functions where the aged people should intake as of the five essential groups each day for a balanced and nutritious diet (Gilbertson et al., 2018).
Nutritional requirement for aged people of Australia
Sources- (Gilbertson et al., 2018)
However, the recommendations also comprise an everyday allowance for additional unsaturated fats through oils, nuts, spreads, and spores:
Allowance for additional unsaturated fats
Sources- (Gilbertson et al., 2018)
Recommendation of Nutrition
Consuming a functional, balanced diet can benefit us to achieve the best health all through life. Intake of a balanced diet is necessary for health living and welfare. Food offers our bodies with the protein, energy, needed fats, vitamins, and minerals for living, to grow, and to function appropriately. It is essential to have an extensive diversity of different diets to arrange for the right extents of nutrients for good fitness. The delight of healthy nutrition is also an abundant cultural preferences of life. The patterns of foods and nutritional that uphold good nutrition have been defined in the above-mentioned Australian Dietary guidelines. Hence, it is said that an unnatural diet will increase the risk of several diseases (Das et al., 2017). The Guidelines of Australian Dietary use the best accessible systematic evidence to make available material on the kinds and quantities of nourishments, groups of food and forms of dietary that aim to encourage health and welfare, lessen the risk of conditions that are related to diet and decrease the risk of chronic disease.
Recommendation of Nutrition
As per the above discussion, it can be said that the disease like dementia has no ongoing treatment. Therefore, the people who have a family history of this disease can take precautions by regular exercise, consuming healthy foods, and interacting with others. Hence, this study also discusses the nutrients that are essential for all ages, especially elderly people, as they lose their appetite and metabolism and lose the ability to absorb nutrients. However, it can be said that nutrients help every age maintain a balanced diet and healthy living and, most importantly, help avoid the risk of different diseases, particularly chronic diseases.