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Role of Nurses in Caring And Controlling Diabetes Assessment Answer

Description/Focus: Principles of Primary Health Care
Value: 50%
Length:  1500 words
Task: Health promotion is the process of enabling people to increase control over and improve their health (WHO, 1986). Choose one of the conditions listed below and discuss the role of the nurse in the five major strategies for health promotion identified in the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion (WHO, Health and Welfare Canada & CPHA, 1986). See page 21 of Clendon and Munns (2019).
Choose one of the following conditions …
  • Diabetes Mellitus
  • Influenza
  • Rheumatic Heart Disease




Health can be defined as the complete physical, social and mental well-being that is beyond the presence or absence of disease.  According to WHO the main purpose of health promotion is to enhance the control of the disease and improve the health of the population. The definition emphasizes one of the most important roles that is played in health promotion are the nurses. The most focused area of nursing is primary healthcare; however, they also contribute to preventive care for the at-risk population. 

The nurses collaborate and partners with the population and communities so that the obstacles related to health can be addressed. The practice of health promotion allows nurses to manage and improve the health condition of the patient. The routine work environment of the nurse creates an advantage for the nurses to interact with the patient and educate them related to the wellness of their health.  

Major Strategies for health promotion

According to the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion, there are five strategies and action areas based on which health is promoted. This includes the building of the public health policies, creating a supportive environment for the health promotion and strengthening of the community action. In addition, the strategies also include the development of personal skills with the re-orientation of health care services through the prevention of illness and diseases. Diabetes mellitus is one of the epidemic conditions in the 21st century that have posed the biggest challenge within the Australian healthcare system (Diabetes in Australia – Diabetes Australia., 2020). Currently, around 1.7 million Australians suffer from Diabetes mellitus, with a total annual expenditure on the treatment of diabetes is $14.6 billion in Australia. 

Based on the five significant strategies, the Government have been developing programs and policies that would help in controlling the diabetes condition impacting the population in Australia. One of the policies is the collaboration as well as the cooperation of governmental organization with the other health sectors so that there is maximum utilization of technology and resources. This assisted in the integration of the preventive practices of diabetes with the detection and management of the condition (, 2020). Further, the policies ensured that diabetes care extends to a multidisciplinary platform within different settings. This helped in the communication and coordination of the health sectors so that appropriate interventions can be provided with the care continuity. 

The policies ensured that there the patients were provided with person-centred care with the self-management of diabetes throughout life. The policy was made to ensure that people can be supported in taking responsibility for their own care. Moreover, the polices also ensured in reducing the health equalities driving focus on minimizing the economic, social and human impact on the individual suffering from diabetes (Wasserman, Wang & Brown, 2018). One of the potential areas that the strategies concentrated was to develop a supportive environment that will help in the health promotion of diabetic patients. This is where the people will be encouraged to participate in physical activities with the reduction in sedentary life and improving healthy eating. 

It also considered educating the population through social media, encouraging a greater number of people to participate in physical activity. Further, following the strategies, the Australian Government ensured that there is an availability of healthier food options with the reduced availability of unhealthy food options. Strengthening of the community can be done in reducing the exposure of the unhealthy food option to children. This has allowed the Government in controlling the promotion, sponsorship and marketing of nutrient-poor and energy-dense beverages and food. This was possible by implementing various compulsory and voluntary advertising code of conducts (Molenaar et al., 2020). In addition, at the national level, Australia has been focusing on managing the chronic condition of diabetes with the assistance of three groups. 

The primary healthcare advisories are involved in providing better to the patients suffering from complex illnesses. They were also responsible for building care models and funding system so that irrespective of the social and financial status of the patient’s care can be provided. Further, the Medicare benefits and the Strategic framework followed by Australia, helped in the prevention and management of diabetes. 

Role of nurses in the five strategies of health promotion

In response to the growing number of people suffering from diabetes, there has been multiple numbers of changes that have occurred for the treatment of the patient and nurse play a very crucial role.  Nurses in Australia are involved in various level of health care for the diabetes patients that are not confined in hospitals (Nikitara, Constantinou, Andreou & Diomidous, 2019). This kind of participation of the nurses has resulted in improving the clinical outcome of the patient and also have resulted in reducing the frequency of inappropriate referrals for secondary care. 

Nurses play an important role in counselling the patients for self-management of diabetes condition. This is achieved through proactive decision-making support and developing a care management model for the patients (King, Nancarrow, Grace & Borthwick, 2017).  It was initially observed that the inpatient care patient had a poor experience in diabetes care due to the lack of adequate knowledge in handling the condition. Thus it became crucial that the nurses overcome the barriers identifying the gaps in the treatment of diabetes care.  One of the greatest roles that nurses play in diabetes care is educating the patients related to diabetes.  

It has been observed that with diabetes education and information that is provided by the nurses resulted in glycemic controls amongst the patients. Moreover, nurses are also advanced carers. They decide on the treatments and carry them out through physical examination. The nurses play the role of team leader, ensuring that the patients are provided with care and treatment following the best practices (Masso & Thompson, 2017).  One of the important aspects in the management of diabetes is handling medicine for diabetes patients. The nurses in Australia are aware of the various complications involved in diabetes like hyperlipidemia, hypertension and cardiovascular condition based on which they prescribed medicines to the patients. Often nurses also play a role of collaborator in assisting the diabetes patients and handling their care. For effective care, the nurses are responsible for conducting activities and assessment so that the best treatment recommendations can be provided to the patients.  

Under the advice of the doctor's prescription, the nurse develops, organize as well as plan diabetes care for the patients. The nurses, at times, need to provide psychological support to the patients (Mc Namara et al., 2017). Often the diabetic patient may suffer psychological problem which negatively impacts on the self-care as well as control of diabetes in the patients. Through psychosocial care, the nurses take care of the patient’s psychological needs with their physical needs. This is especially effective when the patient suffers from illiteracy and denial. This is how the patient contributes to empowering and advocating the treatment of diabetic patients. In Australia, the highest percentage of people suffering from diabetes is the Aboriginals community.
  While handling diabetes patients from the Aboriginal community, it is important the nurses have to adopt community-based strategies. This kind of strategies allows the nurses in health promotion with the prevention of diabetes with enhanced management of condition within the community. The nurses, at times, have to provide intangible support through one-to-one interaction with the patients, making follow up with the patient so that they adhere to the diabetic treatments. Nurses contribute in advocacy of self-management of diabetes within Australians (Young, Eley, Patterson & Turner, 2016).  They provide referral support, assist the patient to communicate with the physician by which they can be provided with the best possible care. 

Some of the health advocacy includes accessibility of health resources to the diabetic patients, which includes medication, orthopaedic shoes and glucose strips. In addition to the support and knowledge of the patient, the diabetic patients also need to be aware of the improvement in the HbA1 C level that requires weight reduction and BMI control which is also assisted by the nurses (Thompson, Watson & Tilford, 2018). HbA1C is one of the recommended glycemic monitoring tests that help in monitoring the acute control of plasma glucose. The accessibility of HbA1c tests in rural settings and in some primary care setting for diabetic patients is limited. Under such circumstances, the nurses help the patients in improving their self-efficacy through enhancing their goal-setting skill, coping skills and management skills of diabetes. 


Hence, from the study, it can be concluded that in spite of the initiatives and the development that have been taken up by the Australian Government following the five major strategies of health promotion, nurses play a very crucial role in controlling and caring diabetic patients. With the increase in the statistics of the number of people suffering from diabetes, nurses help in identifying the reason behind the multiplication of the diabetic condition so that they can be eliminated providing adequate care.  It can be understood that the nurses have a diabetes-specific role in supporting the positive health outcome of the patients. 

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