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Role of ICT In Driving Growth For Cloud-Based Mobile Health Information Systems Assessment Answer

Assessment item 3 - Annotated Bibliography

Value: 30%

Length: 2000 words (10-12 pages)

Group Assessment: No

You are required to prepare for this Assessment Item by:

  1. READING the Subject outline,
  2. COMPLETING Topic 3, 4 and 5 on sections that discuss how to do an Annoatated Bibliography and a Relective Analysis Paper.

WHAT TO DO: Tasks 1 and 2 below

TASK 1 25%
Annotated Bibliography

  1. Write an Annotated Bibliography for your Capstone Topic with a collection of 12 articles following a set structure. The Annotated Bibliography is a critical examination of the most relevant and recent scholarly research on the topic area that is not just a summary of the articles you have read.
  2. An Annotated Bibliography is a detailed analysis of sources that can be used later in an expanded Literature Review.
  3. Use the latest online search tools (CSU PRIMO, Google Scholar, Online databases) and efficient bibliographic organisers - CSU supports the use of EndNote. (available on iPad). EndNote is a bibliographic citation program, allowing references and footnotes to be translated into a variety of standard formats.
    Other tools like 
    Mendeley or Zotero (are fine to use as alternatives.
  4. As a CSU student you can download and install EndNote X9 for Windows or Mac OS platforms.
  5. Ensure that the Annotated Bibliography submitted by you is your own work and has not been submitted elsewhere and comply with the University's requirements for academic integrity.
  6. You can get help in Building and Writing an Annotated Bibliography from several Topics in the ITC571 Interact2 site sidebar menu and other study advice and tips from:
    1. Study Resources (PDF files to download) APA styles (6 or 7) 
    2. Example below shows APA6 style with 2nd and subsequent line indentation and use of DOI link to source if available:
    3. The CSU Library website for LibGuides in Information Technology, Computing and Mathematics.
  7. Review the emerging technology (use internet for journals, conference papers, magazines, news articles, online databases, eBooks) and submit a 12-article Annotated Bibliography on your topic.
  8. A good place to start a collection of articles in your annotated bibliography is via the PRIMO search tool located on the CSU Self-Evaluation Report on Originality (100-150 words)
    1. Select an 1000-word sample of annotations text only (exclude references) from and submit it for testing at Turnitin.
    2. Save and append a copy of the originality report obtained.
    3. Critically evaluate and interpret the originality report, from your context or point of view as your personal Self-Evaluation Report on Originality (100-150 words).
  9. NOTE Tasks 1 and 2 (below) can be appended into the one document and submitted via Turnitin as PDF or other document format

As an example, the Capstone Topic PRIMO search on a research topic like "IoT security in smart cities" returned the following snapshot from a large list of very recent journals related to the Topic, by using the "articles" filter to cut out books, eBooks etc. Next  when applying another filter "peer-reviewed" and a sort by "Date-newest", joined with a show only "Open access" and "Available Online", then the second screen reveals a 2019 journal paper not readily seen on the first broader search result page 1:
The following questions may be useful while reviewing the topic:

  1. What is the new technology?
  2. What does it do and what are the special features it has?
  3. When is it coming out in the market and how much will it cost?
  4. What industry will the new technology affect? (Medical, agricultural, computer, business, etc….).
  5. In your opinion, will the new technology be beneficial to society? Why or why not.
  6. What did you learn from a critical analysis of your sources of information on this new technology?
    TASK 2  5 %
    Annotated Bibliography Reflection (300 words)

Write a reflective narrative on your experience from doing Task 1 as a short Reflective Analysis Paper.
This task will analyse and evaluate the findings you have made from doing the Annotated Bibliography.
This will be an active start to a 
working thesis or overall idea that you are going to pursue and write about in detail later.

The purpose of this assessment activity is for you to analyse your own annotated bibliography as a whole.
Use the 
Five Reflective Analysis Questions below for your 300 word Analysis paper as a guide:

  1. Make a list of keywords for later use in your research writing e.g. literature review, concept mapping etc.
  2. What patterns or trends does your collection of articles reveal to you about your project topic?
  3. Can you reflect holistically on how all of the sources in your Annotated Bibliography relate to any arguments and themes in your project topic?
  4. Are you able to "identify a gap in the literature" as an area of research that is missing and may move you to give focus to that gap? Why or Why not? (Either case is fine to explain)
  5. What are the next steps to do, in order to expand the current annotated bibliography into a longer literature review on the same topic?

After submission, post a copy to share with your peers on the ITC571 Discussion Forum. 


This assessment task will assess the following learning outcome/s:

  • be able to perform literature searches and critically analyse the literature in the chosen topic.
  • be able to critically reflect on and synthesize complex information, problems, concepts and theories in the chosen topic.
  • be able to apply established research methodologies with autonomy.
  • be able to apply project management and information and communication technologies (ICT) tools to plan, execute, record and present their research and project work as a capstone experience.

The rationale of this assessment is to test your ability to review, evaluate, critique and support others opinions as well as existing literature, using a scholarly writing style. You will also demonstrate your ability to carry out independently research and locate information from various sources such as journals, conference proceedings, online databases, eBooks and industry magazines.

The Learning Outcomes being assessed in task include your ability to perform literature searches and critically analyse the literature in the chosen topic and then to critically reflect on and synthesize complex information, problems, concepts and theories in the chosen topic. As the Annotated Bibliography develops, so will also be demonstrating your advanced communication and academic writing skills in transmitting your capstone experiences and ideas to others.

What does a well constructed annotated bibliography contain?

That is a research topic on its own, however I recommend the list of SIX structural elements below

  1. Interpretation and evaluation of an overview of recent trends in emerging technologies and innovation;
  2. Evidence of literature searches and critical analysis of the literature in the chosen capstone topic;
  3. Critical reflection and synthesis of complex information, problems, concepts and theories in the chosen topic;
  4. Original opinion on the benefits of your capstone project to others;
  5. Reflective comments on what was learnt from a review of the literature;
  6. Use of correct citations and referencing conforming to recognised referencing format.

The Checklist for the Annotations elements can be used as a quality check as you write:

Content Elements

  • Coverage of topic
  • Depth of discussion
  • Development of argument and reasoning
  • Selection of literature

Writing Style Elements

  • Structure of review
  • Technical competence
  • Use of citations and quotations
  • Referencing

Task 2 Reflection paper of 300 words
After studying something quite intensely in task 1
 Annotated Bibliography, you are now an expert in that area of research. As such, you need to be able to do an holistic analysis and reflect upon the Annotated Bibliography experience as a whole, as each annotations contains its own individual critique, analysis and evaluation. This relates clsoely to the SIX structural elements from 2 to 5 above.


Task 1 Annotated Bibliography 25% 

Contains 12 articles on the chosen topic, recognition of research methods used in the articles and synthesis of data, findings and ideas)

Task 2 Annotated Bibliography Reflection (300 words) based on your Task 1 results 10%

 300 word Journal Synopsis paper based on your Task 1 results


The Annotated Bibliography should be presented in form of:

  • submit as a PDF file or other document format
  • include a References appendix in APA style


ITC571 – Emerging Technologies and Innovation

< Instructions: Please remove all text that is between “<” and “>” 

<Add Project Title here >

Subject Coordinator:

<Put a picture here if you want to>

Name: <your name here>

Student Number: <your student number here>

You have previously written a short and brief literature review in the proposal. This comprehensive one is the literature review that describes and evaluates the research articles you have read in the specific topic of your interest. 

It also includes a critical analysis of the relationship among different works. Therefore, you need to relate them to your work.

Your Annotated Bibliography should be between 1600 - 2500 words and have the following sections:


Length: approx. 200 words

Give a brief overview of these document in a paragraph. You need to include the following sections (no citations):

  1. Introduction 
  2. Summary of the findings in the literature review 

Research Questions

Length: 100 – 300 words (You need to use enough citations to support your statements) 

What are the major research questions that your project will address? (3 - 6)

Please explain each listed question.

They should be consequent to the research topic and as specific as the topic. It is recommended to avoid very general questions about the topic technology, technique, or domain. 

Literature Review

Length: 200 – 300 words (You need to use enough citations to support your statements). Describe the field of research and show your reader how you will organise your research (in sections with headings). Write your 6blocks, using the following guide: [Please do not discuss paper by paper]

  1. Think of this as an extended introduction. Organise the 6 reviewed blocks extracting the important components of your research topic (depending on what is important for you) – you may have noticed categories some research papers fall into.
    • By technology
    • By results 
    • etc. 
  2. Check all papers to see what you can describe together.
  3. Describe the research by 
    • Whatdid they do?
    • How did they do it?
    • What technology did they use?
  4. Evaluate the contribution the work makes to the field 
    • Why is this work important?
    • How does it differ from other work?
  5. Show the limitations of the research 
    • What did the researchers identify as limitations?
  6. Reflect
    • Whatyou think you know about this topic now
    • What you can identify if those articles have not done something
    • The gaps and limitations that are justified for this research
    • How the research is valuable for your project (link it to your research questions). 
  7. Identify relationships among studies in the same group/block:
    • Note relationships among studies (i.e. this work achieved higher accuracy than other studies using the ROTTO algorithm because …). 
    • Identify important studies (landmark studies) that led to subsequent studies in the same area.
  8. Keep your review focused on your topic: make sure that the articles you have found are relevant and directly related to your topic. 
  9. If you include tables, diagrams, flowcharts or formulas as part of your review, each of them should be given a figure/ table number and that number must be cited in the main text with a detailed explanation (below the figure).


Length: 100 – 200 words (No Citations)

Summarise the key findings from the literature review 


Please note that you need to add all 30-35 references you have collected in your weekly submissions and the other additional references you are appending for each block. That means you should have a reference list of more than 30. 

Please do the citation of all these papers in the main document (mindful of the comments on referencing above).

  • List the resources in APA 7 style
    • Do not forget alphabetical order
    • Do not forget the naming style
    • Any resource should have a publication year
    • Do not forget to manage articles with similar last name of the first author
    • Check for any wrong duplicated resources in the list
    • Check all references in the list are cited in the text and vice versa
    • Check the in-text citations to be in proper format and proper place
  • It is recommended to use reference management software
  • Check the list before submission. A common problem is incorrect or incomplete bibliographical data.

Appendix A

Start each of your appendices on separate pages; number them with capital letters A, B, C …

Pointers for Success

  • Make sure there are no orphaned headers (headings by themselves at the bottom of the page).
  • Make sure all pictures have captions under them (See Figure 1). 
  • Ensure pictures are referred to in the text.
  • Ensure all Tables have captions (see Table 1) and ensure they are referred to in your text.
  • Ensure all images sources from elsewhere are properly referenced.
  • Ensure you use APA 7 referencing style.
  • Ensure all work is written in your own words and all ideas are referenced back to the original author.
  • NOTE: Please use the “Grammar Check” link in the left side bar in Interact2 to check the grammar of your final report before submitting it.
  • Critical analysis and writing are very important 

Sample review group (see below for codes A – H)

Convolution Neural Networks (CNN)        

[A] Convolutional neural networks (CNN) have been used to achieve a more fine-grained analysis in a range of research works. They are generally effective for smaller corpora (Hadad et al., 2016; Colton et al., 2015). However, processing a large corpus isstill computationally expensive due to the high processing time. [B] To overcome this, Abasir et al. (2017) used CNN to train a Natural Language Processing (NLP) systemcreating a RoTT1 algorithm to reduce the training time of a large corpus by several seconds.[C] Lowering training time is important since it lowers computational cost [D] and even though the improvement was not of magnitude, no other group of researchers has been able to achieve this. It points to the fact that the RoTT1 algorithm has potential. [E] In addition to the size of the decrease, the researchers identified as limitation that the overall impact of this reduction is minimal as the data preparation time increased significantly, offsetting the time gains from training.[F]Despite these issues which require further research,the RoTT1 algorithm developed by the researchers is still of interest to the proposed work as it has proven to reduce processing timewhich is one of the aims of this research.[G] The RoTT1algorithm has since also been used by other researchers. An algorithm based on similar principles and CNN were also the basis of an object detection system by Compten and Wells (2018). However, although this adaptation of RoTT1 is interesting, it is field-specific, and the concept may not be suitable foradaptation because the development of a new algorithm is not the focus of this work.It is, therefore, of no further interest. [H] However, of considerable value for our work is the research by Blander et al (2019) which focused on [A] compression of corpora by … Blander at a l (2019) used a multi-layer CNN with the aim adding layers that would sort and condense the corpus 

Article adapted for educational purposes from Ho et al. (2018) with permission of the authors.

[A]State the special area this paper is based on [get additional references from general research or from the paper you have reviewed but not used].

[B] Introduce the work you want to discuss and what they did.

[C] Tell your reader why their work is important.

[D] Draw a comparison about this work with existing research.

[E] The limitations the researchers identified themselves.

[F] State why this work is of value to your own research

[G] How has research been used in the field?

[H] Create a link to the next valuable piece of research (i.e. one of the 12) in the same category.


Title: The Role of ICT Technologies in Driving Growth for The Cloud-Based Mobile Health Information Systems


Background and aim: 

Emerging technologies have been at the forefront of development in the technology sector. New systems, gadgets and products are coming loaded with emerging technologies like Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality, Artificial Intelligence as well as Information and Communication Technologies. This review therefore focuses on analysing the role of the ICT technologies in driving growth for the cloud-based mobile health information systems


This annotated bibliography has mainly focused on synthesising and reviewing scholarly articles related to the research topic area. 


Cloud-based systems have made it easier for organisations to develop new apps and information systems backed up by new features and 24*7 services. This is therefore is accelerating the growth of this sector. Discoveries in the ICT sector are also helping in this regard. This annotated bibliography, therefore, tries to understand this aspect by reviewing several recent scholarly articles. 


ICT has helped in improving health services. IoT helps in improving decision making in health. Moreover, it also helps in monitoring the health of patients. The cloud-based medical system helps store and access information about the health of patients which can be accessed by the users in anytime and anywhere basis which improve health and wellbeing for people.

Keywords: ICT Technology, Cloud, Health Information System 

1. Research questions: 

The main research questions are as follows: 

What are the discoveries happening regarding ICT technologies? 

Explanation: The advancement of new technologies is also leading to new technologies in the ICT sector. For example, researchers are now focusing on how room bulbs can be used to transmit Wi-Fi Data. 

Why is there a growth trend for clouded based mobile health information systems? 

Explanation: The establishment of new companies, as well as the dependency of healthcare organisations towards technology in managing their activities, is one such reason for the growth of this sector. However, there are many other reasons which need to be explored through research. 

What are the main factors that are leading to this growth of cloud-based mobile health information systems? 

Explanation: The main factors are the need for ICT technologies to manage any technological activities, the need to manage and record documents electronically in healthcare systems and many more. 

What is the role played by ICT technologies in driving growth of the cloud-based mobile health information systems? 

Explanation: ICT is the epitome of the growth as it is the source material that provides the necessary technological etiquettes required for managing healthcare systems. New advancements in this technology are driving this growth. 

2.0 Literature Review: 

2.1 Introduction: 

The field of research selected is Information and Communication Technology. According to Huh & Kim (2019), information and communication technology plays a vital role in the advancement of digital technologies. Anything present on the internet or is accessed by the internet is possible due to the advancement of ICT technologies. Progress in ICT shapes different healthcare domain. Adoption of ICT helps create new opportunities to improve health-related outcome. Integration of ICT is not only helpful in improving health outcome but it is also helpful in reducing the costs of healthcare. ICT technologies help gather invaluable as well as huge data from numerous sources in effective ways that help the healthcare professions in offering a better service to the customers. One such application of ICT in healthcare is mobile health (Bervell & Al-Samarraie, 2019). Cloud computing technologies offered the functionality in managing information in the ubiquitous, distributed as well as the pervasive manner that supports the different system, platforms and application. With the help of mobile health applications in ICT devices, users can store data in the cloud which can help monitor the health. Cloud-based mobile health information systems are also a result of the success of new ICT technological advancements (Cechetti et al. 2019, Ismagilova et al. 2019). This mHealth system helps perform two different goals like availability of the e-health related system and access of the medical information at anytime and anywhere basis.

2.2 Research based on technology: 

IoT has changed the way by which healthcare is approached on a worldwide basis (Greco et al.  2020); Walsham, 2020). According to Wang & Cai (2020), along with the technological advancements, IoT has become an efficient method for monitoring the health because efficient and secure retrieval of medical data has become important in the present time.  IoT can be integrated with different medical system to create ubiquitous, cost-effective and on-time healthcare services (Zeadally & Bello, 2019). Wang & Cai (2020) have mentioned that IoT with the edge cloud system can help retrieve the medical data. Butpheng, Yeh & Xiong (2020) has demonstrated that the integration of cloud computing and IoT can create an e-health system. E-health system helps seek, find, appraising as well as understanding health information from electronic sources and acquiring knowledge in resolving health issues (Meng et al. 2019; Liu et al. 2019; AlBar & Hoque, 2019; Chao, Lin & Ma, 2019). Rapidly developing ageing population creates several chronic diseases which creates numerous challenges (Chung & Park, 2019; Huh & Kim, 2019; Polu, 2019; Muzny et al. 2020). M-health helps manage a chronic condition and delivers high-quality healthcare (Scarcy et al. 2019; Nussabaum et al. 2019; Sim, 2019; Butt et al. 2019). The users of the m-health app are continuously developing as the number of mobile phone users is improving. M-health can diagnose, control or track infectious diseases and improve health system efficiencies by developing a combination with an internet-connected device for diagnosis (Christopher et al. 2019). Different health and wellness app can improve usability experiences by aligning the customers and insiders (Liew et al. 2019). Hossain, Rahman & Muhammad (2020) has mentioned the fact that cyber-physical system (CPS) is one of the computing technologies that help in computing, controlling, communicating and sensing among various physical components.

2.3 Research based on results brought by Health Information Systems: 

IoT and smart medical sensors create a huge amount of data which can be analysed with efficiencies to monitor the health of a patient (Greco et al.  2020; Wang & Cai, 2020). CPS utilises big data analytics and cloud computing in offering therapy to the patients (Hossain, Rahman & Muhammad, 2020). On the other hand, Butpheng, Yeh & Xiong (2020) has mentioned that the e-health system can be used in improving informed health-related decision making of the patient. Walsham (2020) has focused on the importance of ICT in developing a health information system. Searcy et al. (2019) has demonstrated that m-health intervention is important because it can help older adults in maintaining a better lifestyle that reduces possibilities of cardiovascular diseases. M-health tools are helpful for people in managing their health and wellbeing (Nguyen et al. 2019; Rajak & Shaw, 2019; Li et al. 2019; Vandenberk et al. 2019). The study of Nussabaum et al. (2019) is different because it applies m-health in rehabilitation. Zeadally & Bello (2019) think that IoT can be connected with billions of devices across the world that can improve the delivery of healthcare. The research of Sim (2019) is different from other research because it offers key regulatory as well as functional aspects of mobile health, whereas Liew et al. (2019) has mentioned insights and offered the suggestion that can improve the experience in the mobile health. Wood et al. (2019) has mentioned that m-health can be used in monitoring the outbreak of infectious disease and implementing some response strategies. The research of Butt et al. (2019) is different from others because it focuses on the security issues in the m-health application.

2.4 Limitation of the research:

 Searcy et al. (2019) has identified that using m-health is the greatest barrier for older adults as they are technologically strong. Nassbaum et al. (2019) has stated that using m-health in rehabilitation is difficult for the people. Zeadally & Bello (2019) think that it is difficult in defining a better as well as universal IoT architecture which can offer better healthcare services. Wood et al. (2019), Sim (2019) has mentioned that higher costs of Smartphone can create difficulties in using m-health, whereas, Butt et al. (2019) thinks that security is the main challenges of an IoT device. On the other hand, Liew et al. (2019); Wang & Cai (2020) think that some user’s faces usability challenges in accessing mobile apps. Hossain, Rahman & Muhammad (2020) think that setting an efficient smart home system is difficult which can offer an energy-aware system for therapy system. Walsham (2020) thinks that developing a better health information system in developing countries is difficult. Butpheng, Yeh & Xiong (2020); Greco et al. (2020) thinks that maintaining security in a cloud-based system is an issue.

2.5 Reflect:

Now I can say from the topic that information communication technology revolution has created numerous opportunities in health. ICT enhances the quality of care, facilitates protection of data, reduces the costs associated with administration and operation as well as increases patient security (Vandenberk et al. 2019). I have observed that ICT is associated to develop different telecommunication devices like Smartphone that can help people in storing their health condition which helps them in availing a better healthcare service by sharing the information with doctors. After conducting this research, I have developed a better knowledge of mHealth. Mobile health system refers to the practice of public health and medicines that are supported by different mobile devices like mobile phones, personal digital assistants, tablets and wireless infrastructure (El-Sappagh et al. 2019). Moreover, doctors or nurses stores medical information about the patients and maintain hospital information system with the help of ICT (Chung & Park, 2019; Chakraborty, 2019). If those articles do not offer knowledge about the utilisation of ICT device then the influence of ICT technology in creating m-health system would be unknown. Moreover, these articles also shed on a different technology that helps in creating a better health system. I have recognised some gaps and challenges that have been identified in the research paper that are some people who do not have knowledge in operating ICT device which creates issues for them in operating m-health. Moreover, security issues are highest in the ICT devices that can create issues for the users. As it is directly connected to the web, therefore, the intruders can access the patient data and manipulate it which can harm the patient. These research papers are valuable for researching because this research paper offers a brief knowledge about the importance of ICT in forming m-health. Moreover, it also offers different devices that help in mobile health. It also focuses on the issues associated to use IoT technologies and mobile health. 

2.6 The relationship between different studies:

Searcy et al. (2019); Sim (2019); Liew et al. (2019) has mentioned general knowledge about mobile health. These research papers offer a greater level of in-general knowledge about different techniques that helps in mobile health. Though Wood et al. (2019) has also shed light on the m-health this journal focuses on the utilisation of m-health on diagnosing infectious diseases. Nussbaum et al. (2019) has applied the importance of m-health on rehabilitation. Therefore, all these above-mentioned journals are linked with each other. On the contrary, Zeadally & Bello (2019); Greco et al. (2020); Butpheng, Yeh & Xiong (2020) have focused on the importance of IoT on the healthcare system. This research paper mainly sheds lights on how IoT can offer an improved healthcare system. Butt et al. (2019) has solely focused on the multivariant security framework in the application of mobile health. He has not only mentioned about the security issues mobile health but also offered a framework with the help of which problem can be resolved. Hossain, Rahman & Muhammad (2020) has focused on a completely different segment that is energy-aware and cloud-oriented cyber-physical system. The cyber-physical system is useful in offering better therapy management. In the cyber and physical layer, energy is consumed, therefore, energy efficiencies are necessary. Walsham (2020) has argued that for developing a health information system, educating people is important. Wang & Cai (2020) have mentioned that IoT is important in effective retrieval of medical data that helps in monitoring health.

3.0 Conclusion: 

The above analysis has clearly shown the role of ICT technologies on cloud-based mobile health information systems. Higher as well as reliable connectivity for the medical sensors and devices, IoT ecosystem is essential. ICT technologies help form wearable, portable, miniature, implantable as well as mobile wireless devices that help in offering better mobile health which can help patients as well as health workers in tracking or monitoring the health of patients so that better treatment can be offered. However, the security issue is one of the issues that create difficulties in using mobile health. Thus, proper security infrastructure needs to be incorporated into the health system. 

Task 2: Annotated Bibliography Reflection 

Keywords: Mobile Health Information Systems, Cloud-based Systems, Mobile Health, ICT technology 

Patterns and trends: From the review of the articles, I have identified that most of the articles are focusing on either the results that mobile health information systems are brining to the healthcare sector or the way ICT technologies are influencing the development of new cloud-based systems that are improving the entire mobile health information systems. 

Relation of the topic with the project topic: My project topic is about the cloud-based information system and the role of ICT in it. The annotated bibliography articles selected are eventually shedding light on the themes like new advancements in mobile health, Healthcare benefits, M-Health architecture and so on. 

Gap in Literature: The articles used for the annotated bibliography mostly analysed the way m-health is improving. However, the new advancements in the ICT technologies and the improvements that can be possible in the m-health sector is not defined properly. My research can be done focusing on this gap. 

Steps to follow to expand the current annotated bibliography into larger literature review: I have reviewed only few of the articles that are related with my project topic. However, there is a vast majority of scholarly articles that are yet to be researched and synthesized. Going forward with the research, I at first need to identify few more keywords based on the gap identified. Based on the keywords, I need to make use of the university library and databases like ProQuest to search for more articles, say, more than 100 of articles. Synthesizing those articles and making notes from them, I finally will be able to expand the annotated bibliography into a larger literature review. 

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