Relationship Between Organisation Culture and Employee Satisfaction: Literature Review Answer
Relationship between Organisation Culture and Employee Satisfaction
Organizational culture plays an important role in employee satisfaction. According to Odor (2019), every organisation has its unique ways of operating which distinctively defines the organization. Cultural practices include the policies and norms used by an organization to deal with their employees. The techniques of evaluation, promotional decisions, and safety and security measures for an employee are related to the work culture. The appraisal systems, incentive schemes, festival bonuses, or ex gratia are prevalent in certain organizational constructs. Providing facilities to the employees in terms of medical allowance and health insurance is a part of culture followed in companies. Work culture is necessary to encourage the employees for better performance. Henceforth, an organization need to devise some crucial strategy by the help of which an excellent and disciplinary work culture can be developed (Engert et al. 2019). Through this, the organisation can motivate its employees as well as satisfy the needs and requirements of the employees that can provoke them to perform optimally. In the view of Dev & Sengupta (2017), innovative and participative culture, enterprising culture, disciplined and meritorious culture are determinants of job satisfaction in employees. Certain organizations value discipline within employees in terms of their working hours and timing of joining. The leave rules are appropriately designed but extra leniency is not tolerated in terms of absentees. The organizations are constantly updating their working strategies and a new culture is coming into action. Enthusiastic and hardworking employees who dedicate themselves to the organizations are satisfied with the meritorious culture (Dev & Sengupta, 2017). Hence, it can be said that innovation and creativity play a vital part in job satisfaction as young employees are interested in problem-solving approaches with new techniques. Emerging technologies and equipment introduced new cultural standards among organizations where an increased level of productivity is observed.
Rizwan (2019) states that gender diversity have a large impact on employee satisfaction. Organizations following a biased approach towards male employees created negative feelings and decreased productivity in certain sectors. Adequate bias may be fruitful but extensive gender bias is harmful in certain business constructs. Diversity is a significant factor in an organization. It is defined in terms of employee variety concerning gender, age, culture, ethnicity, and socio-economic class. Culture and environment are interrelated terms as the environment influences the cultural traits of an individual. Development of a motivated work culture can help an organisation to improve the quality of its employees ' performance that directly and positively impact on the brand value and image of that company (Pawirosumarto et al. 2017). Therefore, it can be argued that the company should focus on the development of good workplace culture in order to seek the optimum benefits of its employees' performance. Gender equality in the present context is a social cause and violating the laws creates negative feelings within the employees (Kulik & Olekalns, 2012). In the view of Devaraj et al. (2018) an organisation may suffer from negative brand image if the company support and promote racial, sexual discrimination in the workplace that negatively impacts on the profitability of the company as customers' preference over buying the products of the company may decrease significantly. Thus, companies need to aware of this fact and take the necessary measures in order to anticipate these types of challenges.
According to Murtiasih & Supriyanto (2019), a company have to consider the influence of social and cultural aspects where it functions its business operations. Therefore, the promotion of racial or another sort of discriminatory actions can negatively affect the brand image of the company. Ensuring a fairness policy in employment and appraisals will encourage diverse manpower in an organization concerning gender, caste, or religion. Open-mindedness is seen in today's new generation who keep themselves above prejudices and age-old customs. Diversity management and maintain a cultural balance will affect job satisfaction in today's youth. Bretcu & Demyen (2018) argued that existing organizations follow seven different constructs concerning cultural norms. They are entrepreneurial (centralized and direct structure), mechanical (hierarchical and bureaucratic environment) professional (decentralized hierarchical model) divisional (power divided into subdivisions), innovative (adhocracy, dynamic environment) and missionary (based on rules and code of conduct). Adhocracy has a larger impact on the satisfaction of its employees. It is not a hierarchical approach which gives a certain degree of freedom. Decision making is influenced by the participation of employees and it changes concerning the environmental status. Therefore, if an organization is open to new ideas and creativity and not centralized in an adhocracy structure, people are more satisfied to work in such a cultural system.
According to Prasad Sumanarathna (2019), employee behaviour is a reciprocal relationship that depends on how employers behave with their employees. The code of conduct in an organization influences the ethical culture in an organization. The employees remain associated with an organization due to the benefits it gains from the organization and the status it achieves in its society. Cultural construct also deals with the ethical side of an organization. As a result of globalization and business expansion, transparency concerning business standards and profit margins is a primary requirement. The employees must be given information regarding the economic status and the progress in terms of annual reports and sustainability reports. Profit is a key factor in employee satisfaction. Therefore, organizations must share their profit margins with their valuable employees who contribute to growth and development.
Relationship between Employee Relationship and Employee satisfaction
Employees are the driving force for any business organization. Employees are one of the key assets of a company in regards to which, an organisation needs to focus on the relationship of employees that can help the authorities to satisfy the needs of its employees. Running a business successfully is to manage the human resource of an organization efficiently and effectively. According to Vorina et al. (2017), satisfaction in a job can be defined as the emotional condition of the employee regarding their position of work. It is defined by the profit they make and also the relationship they maintain within the organization. Only satisfied employees can keep up with the pace of the competitive market. It can also be argued that employee relationship is integral to job satisfaction. In a broad spectrum, employee relationship is defined as the relationship of management with the employees, the employee supervisor relation, and also the relation between the colleagues working in similar positions. A manager-subordinate relationship and relationship between manager and higher authorities like the company owners and its stakeholders is a hierarchical structure where leadership plays a key role. According to Babalola et al. (2016), the perceived leadership style determines the level of satisfaction in an employee and increases its level of performance and its dedication to the organization. On the contrary, the supporters of authoritative leadership style emphasises on dominating relationship between the employers and employees as it would keep the employees under control and help them to accomplish their job (Harvard Business School, 2020). According to Northouse (2012), the employees are satisfied with the instructions and directors provided by the leaders. The communication is restricted which hampers relationship with the employees as the controlling process is strict. As against this, Goleman (2017) upheld affilitative leadership for developing a positive relationship between the employers and employees. Affilative leadership creates harmony among the team and improves morale thereby increasing satisfaction and reducing the chances of poor performance. Thus, development of positive relationship is essential to enhance satisfaction and improve overall performance of the employees.
Workplace hostilities and rivalries may cause depression and stress which reduces the productivity of an organization. Giving a healthy atmosphere is the job of the human resource management of any organization. In today's era of globalization and liberalization, employee relationship has gained much importance in terms of the business environment (Vorina et al. 2017) In the present context, the code of conduct regarding employee dealings is under the scanner. Rules and regulations are being introduced by the government to deal with any kind of harassment or misconduct with the employees by the management. Special advisory boards comprising of company authorities and staff members are formed to address the issues regarding the violation of the dignity of any employee. It helps in gaining confidence within the employees and they feel safe and secure within the workplace. Satisfaction comes automatically when an employee is secure and is free to express its demands and difficulties. Job satisfaction is mandatory from the management point of view as it will increase the productivity of its workers. Increased production with maintained quality ensures greater profit margins. The bonding among the employees within themselves results in the formation of a good team which in turn favours the overall business outcomes. Employee Relationship Management (ERM) is a process used by the organizations to train the managers about building a relationship with employees and through effective communication and also nurturing the relationship (Strohmeier, 2013). In the case of Woolworths, the ERM oriented rules and regulations develop by the company are very efficient to manage a good relationship with its employees. The implemented policies of the company effectively handle the grievances as well as conflicts among its employees that help them to enhance the productivity rate of the company (Channa, 2019). Thus, human resource management also monitors the process to ensure employee satisfaction for reaching the objectives..
According to Chaubey et al. (2017), this approach is liberal and provides satisfaction by giving power to the employees. Employee empowerment is more relevant in the present business structure. The factors affecting employee satisfaction include employee participation in decision-making policies, exchange of ideas in an open forum, use of both top-down and bottom-up approaches where creative innovations are given importance from every employee. However, employee participation is significantly contradicted by the claims of McGregor in his Theory X as he states employees or workers are lazy and hence they would avoid responsibility and forcing and punishing the employees are the ways to keep them motivated towards work. Opposing this view, Theory Y suggests employees are responsible towards organisation and focusing on participative decision-making creates a loyalty bonding in order to lead the employees in meeting with the business objectives (Arslan, & Staub, 2013). However, Tomczak, Lanzo, & Aguinis (2018) also mentioned about the significance of monitoring the performance from top-level management for evaluating performance and promotion issues are also necessary for uplifting the employees. The feedback system encourages the employees and increases loyalty towards the organization. Motasemi et al. (2017) argued that employee discord depreciates the growth of the organization due to the employee's poor performance. This helps in understanding that employee relationships can help with employee satisfaction significantly. Thus, it can be concluded that employee satisfaction is related to the behavioural approach of the authorities in terms of communication patterns providing stimulation and inspirational skills, positivism, empathy, and kindness.
Relationship between employee benefits and employee satisfaction
Employee satisfaction is creating an enormous impact on the environment of the office and it is important to increase the progress in the workforce. Employee benefits can be able to fulfil an employee's satisfaction. According to Dhamija et al. (2019), job satisfaction of employees is important to progress the flow of work. The job satisfaction of an employee can make a difference to deliver the quality of the work. This paper highlights the influential factors that are creating job satisfaction among employees. It is found that the quality is interconnected with job satisfaction. Satisfaction is acted as a variable in the work environment. It helps to increase the production of work and it enhances the knowledge of an employee. In this way, job satisfaction plays a huge role to full the higher management of an organization. Thus, it can be mentioned that job satisfaction is designed with a planned approach and this approach is important to create a healthy environment.
According to Nisar & Siddique (2019), job satisfaction comes among employees when empowerment is acted as an instrument. This empowerment is described by a multidimensional perspective. It is also identified that job competence is responsible to decrease satisfaction among employees and this dissatisfaction is making barriers to not deliver the work adequately. It is addressing a service failure that is creating a hindering impact on the organization. Empowerment in this organization is hierarchical that indicates the flow of work is transmitted through upper strata to lower strata. It argues that the structure of the organization helps to empower workers and provide them with job satisfaction. According to Ko and Choi(2019), work overtime can diminish the productivity of an employee. It has a hindering impact on job satisfaction. Here, overtime working in various sectors is acted as a negative impact on the employee’s minds. This paper describes this approach which is analyzed by the author. The author describes the human capital theory and the casual attribution approach. The level of overtime can modify by an employee’s innovation perspective. It describes the productivity level of an employee explains the approach of the trust of an organization. It enlightens the costs and the benefit of overtime work is related to the benefits of an employee. Thus, companies should appraise their employees' performance in order to motivate them as well as to increase their satisfaction. By the help of this approach, the organisation can develop a strong and loyalty bonding with its employees that assist the company to meet with the business goals.
According to Budie et al. (2019), employee satisfaction enhances productivity and increasing productivity helps to satisfy organizational needs. These organizational needs motivate to increase the benefits of an employee. This study is all about to represent a holistic approach to the relationship between employee benefits and satisfaction. It investigates the environment of the workplace properly. It demonstrates environmental factors are directly related to satisfaction and the performance of an employee. According to de la Torre-Ruiz et al. (2019), firms are struggling to give satisfaction to an employee. This satisfaction is acted as a benefit of an employee. This article shows two theories like social exchange theory and organizational support theory draw a particular framework that explains the three dimensions of employee satisfaction and employee benefits. On the other hand, the behavioural outcomes of satisfaction are not justified with proper reasons. It shows that the consequences of behavioural satisfaction can lead to the dimensions of benefits. The authors state that organizational commitment is an essential thing for an employee. It controls the satisfaction an employee need. Also, Katz & Krueger (2019) suggested that an alternative work schedule can make satisfaction among employees. It leads to a perfect model of work. The argument of the author highlights the fact that alternative work arrangement is leading as a positive factor that helps to increase the involvement of an employee. It helps to progress the motive of works. The arrangement of alternative involvement of work is acted as a benefit. This helps to fulfil the satisfaction of an employee. The trend of alternative work increases the percentage of an employee. According to Strenitzerováv & Achimský (2019), the new perspectives are assessed with the satisfaction of an employee. It highlights the job attributes of an employee also it identifies the socio demographical factors of an employee. It concerns that job satisfaction and motivations are key concerns for an organization. Employee loyalty is also an important factor for an organization. However, the reasons for dissatisfaction are described here. It is found that financial reward is creating dissatisfaction among employees. It also analysis the lack of interest is becoming a factor among employee motivation. This is creating a hindering impact on productivity that can lead to a decrease in employee benefits. The authors highlight the analysis between regression and correlation that is helpful to judge an employee's benefits and satisfaction.
Relationship between Career Development and Employee Satisfaction
Career Development is an important practice for every employee of any organization and it will help to enable the managing staff of Human Resources to work, organize and plan together to develop the job position, attitude, behaviour as per the working life of the employees. According to Sinha (2020), a good carrier always helps to achieve the satisfaction of the job of the employee and gives a clear understanding of the importance of the system for their profession. To hold the sustainability of a successful organization the engaged and talented employees are required and to retain or hire those employees’ satisfaction is very much needed and career development of those employees will help to retain them and the activities of career development will help to develop the external and internal pressures and it is also required to expand the services of career development. The path of effort, knowledge Management, evolution, freedom can be achieved significantly by the proper career development and it will help the employees to move forward to a personally resolute future which will be preferred for further development. Career Development systems are used as integrated procedures and services which are meeting both the needs of the organization and individual employees. As per the statement of Ismail &Rishani (2018), the various programs of career development will help the managers of HR along with stakeholders to organize, plan and lead together for not only the purpose of the job of the employees but the behaviour, attitude and whole process also to enhance and encourage the work-life of the employees and that will help to influence the satisfaction of the employee. The satisfaction of the employees and their job is dependent on the career of co-workers, supervisors, and compensation along with the environment of the work. However, in the view of Wheatley (2017), oftentimes flexible working arrangements can help a company to motivate its employees. Therefore, an organisation should provide a flexible working experience to its employees in order to motivate them in doing their respective job.
Job satisfaction of the employee is defined as the emotional state rather positive emotional state which is resulting from job evaluation of the employee or the experience of the job of the employee. A good system of career development helps to achieve the satisfaction of the employee along with the importance of the system for the employees. Successful organizations need high productivity in the style of work along with a competitive edge in the global economy and to gain this competitive edge and efficiency, it is required to engage some talented employees. Herachwati& Agung Budianto (2016), stated that the managers of the HR department need to engage those employees and the process of career development is very important to do this. The engagement of the employee will be enhanced by the practice of career development and it helps to retain the effectiveness of the organization. The practice of Career Development is purposed for matching the challenges of the organization with the aspirations of the employees and the aspiration of the employees will be enhanced by a program of career development to increase the effectiveness of the organization. To motivate, attract, and retain the existing employees it is required to be concern about the career development of the employees and the career development of employee’s leads to run the corporate development. It is required to offer various practices of career management programs like coaching, succession planning, rotation, plans of development, opportunities information to enhance the career development of the employees. Different surveys are required to estimate the needs of the career development of the organization and it will help to understand the programs of implementation regarding the career development of the employees. It is true that without satisfying the needs of the individual employees, the needs of the organization will not be fulfilled. The context and culture of the organization need to be understood along with the roles of needs of implementation and that need to be articulated and well defined to help to influence the satisfaction of the employees. The feedback of the performances is strongly related to career development and it determines the path of the career of the employees with huge success. It is required to inform the weakness and strength of the employees to them and this can be a major component.
As per the statement of Yarbrough et al. (2017), the employees can achieve the objectives of their career through the appropriate planning of career and the support of various services of carrier development like skill training, mentoring, and feedback of performance and it helps to bring the satisfaction in the mind of the employees. The career of an employee makes a huge impact on the satisfaction of a job in that workplace. The concept of career development is defined as the work experience sequences used for organizational and personal goals achievement under control. The development of a career is the expectations, promotions, values, and objectives of the employees used for the advancement of the career of the employees. Therefore, it can be said that the employees help to achieve the organizational and personal goals with their working experience gained through the programs of career development and the development of the career of the employees always makes a relationship between the career development and satisfaction of the employees.
Relationship between Employee Satisfaction and Job Performance
The performance of the job is highly dependent on the satisfaction of the job of the employees and it has a strong relationship with employee satisfaction. Employees are working for the employees not for the company always. If the employees are not happy then the performance of their job will be less effective and the performance will go down. It is argued by Alessandri et al. (2017), that the satisfaction of the employees is a response of the attitude of the employee and it is the combination of different things like perception, awareness, judgment, and reasoning of the employees. The enhancement of satisfaction of employee’s jobs is played by the management of the organization. The management takes the responsibility of continuous review, rethink, or reassess on the creation of a highly positive and friendly environment for the work of Employees. This factor ensures the availability of the resources and tools required for the successful accomplishment of the job and that influence the job performance of the employees. The particular environment empowers the foundation to maintain and develop the motivation of the job along with the satisfaction of the employees.
According to the statement of Valaei&Jiroudi (2016), it can be argued that the happiness of the employees is a key factor to their satisfaction and the management needs to provide better attention to share the vision, the mission to the employees and helps to appreciate the objectives and how the objectives will help to achieve the personal goals of the employees and this factor will surely insist the employees increase the performance for the organization and that will make the employees more productive and loyal to their organization. If the management ensures the concerns and satisfaction of the employees as a complete person then that will increase the performance and productivity of the employees and that will help to gather more satisfied customers and which will lead to the profitability of the organization.
In the view of Griffin et al. (2020), an organisation needs to focus on developing a good organisational culture in order to promote employee wellbeing. Thus, the attitude of the employees is very much necessary to determine the worker's behaviour in an organization and the satisfied workforce helps to the pleasant atmosphere created for the organization and it will help the employees to perform well as per their job requirement and it is highly impactful on the performance. The management is looking at the sex, age, and experience level of the employees for job satisfaction and identifies the level of the satisfaction of the employees to prevent them from leaving and that type of concern will help to influence the performance of the employees. A highly motivated and satisfied workforce is required to achieve high efficiency and productivity level along with the advancement of the job performance for an organization.
It is stated by Bayona et al. (2020), that the satisfied worker tries to give more extension to their effort and they work better and harder to increase the job performance for an organization. If the job satisfaction is fulfilled to any employee, then he/she is always motivated to give greater effort for the performance of the job and after that, it increases the organizational overall performance. The level of job satisfaction decides the attitude to the job because the employee with a high satisfaction level always shows positive attitudes to the job but the employee with a low level of satisfaction performs the opposite. Job performance is a task to provide the description, variable affectivity on the job and it builds a good interpersonal relationship with the satisfaction level of the employees and the performance of the job depends on the adaptability of the employees which depends on the satisfaction of them. In the view of Alkhateri et al. (2018) the satisfaction of the employees and the job performance are the most crucial constructs of productivity rateof an organization. The system of performance appraisal and reward providence helps the management to understand the ability of the employees and encourage them to perform better in the future for the organization.
The job satisfaction factors are varied in different places and it depends on the culture of the place and organization and works accordingly to influence the performance of the job. The job satisfaction techniques provide training on skills, abilities, characteristics of the employees to bring the interest of them on the provided job. Sony &Mekoth (2019), have stated that the job satisfaction of the employees focuses on the social, environmental, and financial dimensions of the organization to retain the existing employees for better quality performance because the existing employees must have a strong relationship with the HR managers. Work engagement is also a crucial factor for employees to enhance job performance. The satisfaction of the employees helped to gain the perspectives of proactive employees and take initiatives and work changes according to the performances. It is required to provide the required information for the job of the employees and give attention to the demand of the employees. Hence, an organization can implement high processing permissions to the employees to work according to their ability and that will increase the performance of the job. The level of employee satisfaction has a strong relationship with job performance.