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Reflective Journal on Alcohol and Other Drugs Assessment 4 Answer

Assessment 4: Individual weekly reflective journal 

Word Count: 1000 - 1200 words

• Submission of a consolidated written journal of weekly reflective entries to demonstrate your understanding of the class sessions and participation in the group activities • Your combined journal entries must reflect the following: • Your AOD knowledge and the role of interagency case management • Your understanding of the Interrelated issues in young people, including mental health, AOD, and homelessness Your understanding of the interrelated nature of dual diagnosis of clients with multiple complex needs Evaluation of AOD group process and your own applied skills in group settings

You are encouraged to start writing your weekly reflections from Week 1 to capture ongoing and recent learning and insight.

Your written journal should include at least 8 (scholarly) journal articles read, in addition to any textbook references. Your assessment should not be copied from the Powerpoint presentations provided by the lecturer. The format of your final submission will be discussed in greater detail during tutorials.


Reflective Journal on Alcohol and Other Drugs


The drug is the term that refers to the medicines used in the various purposes and treatment. These have a narcotic effect and affect the physiology of human beings in different ways. Drugs can be prescribed by doctors for relief of specific physical or mental conditions. These are often used illegally for this narcotic effect that helps in relieving stress for a short period. These can be extracted from different plants such as Marijuana or can be synthesized in the labs. Illegal and excessive use of drugs can lead to various cognitive, physiological, or behavioural disorders among human beings. 

Evidence-based model

Drugs are used all over the world to reduce their stress due to several reasons which can be the failure in fulfilling major responsibilities and obligations, legal problems, or even temporary amusement. It is believed that the cultivation of plants that can be used to extract drugs, such as poppy, was started around 300 BC. I think that people who start taking the drug are believed to face a condition that is suggested as ‘impaired control’ where the person takes an unnecessarily larger amount of the drug for long durations which leads to serious health hazards for the person in the later period (Schiff, 2002).

The problematic abuse of drug is categorized into the following categories

Hazardous use: The drug is used in unnecessarily high amounts which poses a serious threat to the physical as well as the mental health and wellbeing of the person (Fairbairn et al. 2016).

Harmful use: This pattern of use is the use of the drug which is causing damage to the physical or health of the person (Gray et al. 2018).

Substance abuse: It is a pattern that causes critical mental or health impairments.

Substance dependence: It is a behaviour that the drug user will continue to take the drug despite the health issues that are being suffered (Gurriarán et al. 2019).

Drug Categories

Drugs are classified into various categories depending upon their properties and affect the human body.

Hallucinogens: These drugs cause humans to hallucinate unreal things by affecting all their senses including the sense of hearing, tasting, and even feeling (Dos Santos et al. 2016). In my opinion it can lead to a floating feeling and numbness of the body. Even a small dose can also lead to confusion and dizziness. Large doses of the hallucinogens can lead the person to suffer from the loss of memory, paranoia, rapid heart rate, panic, distress, aggression, and anxiety. This category of drugs includes the Psilocybin, 

Depressants: These drugs affect the central nervous system of the body and slowdowns the body function to give a relaxing feeling to the person (Gehring et al. 2018). It is used by the people suffering from depression which if taken in a high dose can lead to sleeplessness, nausea, or vomiting, and in serious conditions can also lead to the death of the person. These include Alcohol, GHB, Ketamine, Cannabis, and various Opioids.

Stimulants: These types of drugs affect the central nervous system to speed up the processes. 

Analgesics: These are generally called as the painkillers. These are prescribed by doctors for pain relief and are commonly used after surgeries and operations by doctors (Bicket et al. 2017). These include Aspirin, Paracetamol, Ibuprofen, Fentanyl, Morphine, etc.

Models of drug use

There are many models for drug usage. These are,

Moral model: In this model, the addiction is viewed as a weakness of the person and it is considered a sin in society. It is believed to be a moral weakness that needs to be changed by the people. I have recognised that in this model, the people with drug addictions were punished with violently. They were whipped, and public beating was also practiced. Fines and shaming were also common. 

Psychodynamic Model: This model is used for the treatment of drug abuse and people with problems. It is believed that every problem in adulthood can be related to childhood incidences and hence, takes into consideration counselling and therapies for the treatment of drug addiction. It uses counselling and emotional support to the person (Alvarez-Monjaras et al. 2019).

Diseases model: In my view point, this model views drug addiction as a disease or illness and that it does not exist as a continuum. This model suggests that addiction is either present or absent in a person. The addicted person is unable to restrict the use of the substance in any way and the addiction is irreversible and cannot be cured. The AA or the Alcohol anonymous can be related to this model.

Principles for effective treatment

The principles for the treatment of drug addictions include:

Person-Cantered: Person-cantered treatment focuses on the person and ways by which the addiction can be treated. According to me, A person-centric approach can be helpful as it focuses on the person with the weakness and motivation strategies are used to build the confidence and will in the person to let go of the addiction. It enhances and strengthens the efficacy of the treatment (Marchand et al. 2018).

Evidence-informed: This principle involves showcasing the evidence of the harmful effects of alcohol on the others in the surrounding. This approach can be helpful as the person can see the future results of his action and might decide to make a change (Potter & Poulton, 2018)

Holistic and coordinated: This involves coordinating and supporting the person for his actions. The holistic approach can be helpful as it considers the emotional and spiritual needs of the person for the treatments of the addiction.

Culturally responsive: I have found that the Cultural responsiveness and ethical approach are used to treat addiction in many societies around the world as an effective measure as it considers the diverse nature of the person and his cultures.


It can conclude that drug abuse or addiction possesses serious health issues to human beings and the people must prevent themselves from getting addicted to any kind of drug. The drugs prescribed by doctors for the treatment purposes which are the painkillers and anaesthesia and depressants can be used only in the prescribed quantity. Abuse of these drugs can lead to major health issues which are harmful to every person including me as well as the surrounding. It is seen as a social hazard and people follow various models and principles for its treatment around the world.

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