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Reflection On Critical Self Evaluation Case Study Assessment Answer

The key aspect of reflection is a critical evaluation of the self. Students will undertake a number of in-session cases between weeks 1-4 and must use two (2) of the nominated cases as the basis for self analysis have been completed in class. 

The unit coordinator and or facilitator nominates which ones are to be used as part of the assessment. Students are not permitted to self select cases. 

Students will also complete at least 2 ethical diagnostic tools in class and must attach the results sheet as an appendix

The task is to analyse the decision made for the two cases nominated by the Unit coordinator or facilitator, at the time they were completed. Students are not to re-analyse the cases and come up with new decisions. Students are expected to look at the decision they made at the time, and using ethical theory, classify the approach they took, or the justifications used. 

Students are to reflect on their decisions by examining their assumptions about ethics, the purpose of business etc.  Students must specifically refer to the results from a minimum of two diagnostic tools as a means of gaining further insight into their own ethical behaviours and preferences. Students need to contrast these results against the decisions made in the cases and their own assumptions and values. Students are to provide a conclusion that considers whether or not they would change their decision, based on the ethical and moral theories discussed in class.

A detailed rubric and audio file are available in the Assessment Folder below that provides further details for this assessment task.

Weighting: 30%

Assessment Criteria:

Students are required to:

  • Analyse the two cases nominated by the unit coordinator or class facilitator, completed in class (signed and or verified by the lecturer)
  • Utilise a minimum of 2 diagnostic tools as part self analysis
  • Discuss the decisions and analyse the decision made at the time of completing the case, using the diagnostic results and ethical theories and concepts to reflect on personal ethical decision making
  • Utilisation key ethical, moral, values and relativist concepts and terms to describe and analyse their own positions or belief
  • Provide a reflection of why they made the original decision and whether they would adopt a different approach given the concepts studied in the unit.
  • Provide a comprehensive analysis and reflection of between 1500-2000 words
  • Use between 12-16 quality references that must include key readings and recommended texts (Ferrell et al. 2015 and McDonald, 2015), using APA referencing and including a reference list.

Reflection Trigger Questions

The key to effective reflection is to analyze your own behaviours, and decisions so as to gain a better understanding of why you do what you do, and to challenge whether this is appropriate or not.

Most students simply describe what they did or the decision they took, then jump immediately to an assessment of whether it was right or not- this is not reflection. This is description and will only result in a pass.

Key questions to consider

  • What decision did I make or behaviour did I exhibit?
  • What assumptions or beliefs did I hold that informed my practice?
  • Why did I hold these views or assumption- explore your upbringing, education, religious beliefs, cultural background- does this explain it?
  • How did I feel about the decision? Examples of emptions might include: anger, ambivalence, confusion, annoyance- etc.
  • Explore why you held these feelings! Is it due to a conflict between what you thought was acceptable and the ethical content we considered in class or the unit?

You need to  refer to at least 2 cases or activities we undertook in class as the basis for your discussion. These two minimum cases will be nominated by the unit co-ordinator, but referring to more cases and how you reached your decisions is likely to display greater depth. Cases might include, e.g. the Ford Pinto, All Asia Airways, Moral Triggers, etc

Using the trigger questions analyze what you did, or the position you held and why. (Assumption, background etc.)

As part of the analysis you must directly refer to the results of a minimum of 3 verified diagnostic tools. E.g. does you result from the Values questionnaire explain your behaviours or decision making, or does it help you understand your assumptions etc. Contrast and compare the results of the tools to seek understanding of your behaviours and assumption, decisions etc.

These must be attached to the assignments as appendices. ( Just the results page)

(Remember that the minimum is 3 diagnostic tools- if you only refer to 3 results then you will only score the minimum grade for this section.

One of the key objectives of this unit was to provide you with the tools to analyze the ethical dimension of a decision or situation that you might find yourself in, so that you can assess the ethical risk to you and your organisation. To allow you to make a more informed decision.

Determine whether the content of the unit has given you greater insight into ethics and behaviour.

Think about this objective and provide a final commentary about how you will use this information as a manager in the future.



Case Study 1


Sustainability and business ethics are an integral part of an organization since its decision-making depends entirely on its moral values. There may be various tricky situations in business where getting the work done may become complicated. However, effective leaders make conscious efforts not to resort to means like treachery, forgery or taking advantage of any situation. The essay projects self-awareness and self-reflection, evaluating the decision-making capabilities of a manager in similar complex situations. The diagnostic tools like Moral Competency Inventory, Scoring Sheet, Kolb Learning cycle, insight communication system, feedback from the management, and interpretation notes are used for the case study attached in the appendices. 

Analyzing the ethical dimension of a decision

The ethical dimensions discussed in case study 1 that reflects the tricky decision taken by Frank Diabolo in approaching his childhood friend in asking a favor for the hospital building project may be unwise in terms of ethical consideration. As I understood, the first stage can be related through the Kolb Learning Cycle, which relates to the situation's concrete experience (Din et al. 2020). The reflective observation in the first stage suggests diverging, and the active experimentation suggests accommodating. The diverging stage reflects how Frank used his friend to gather vital information to get the project's tender (Ferrell et al. 2019). The intention here was to collect the information and not do any untoward task or manipulate the tender process. 

The behavior I understood from this case study reflects that gaining information may not harm the ethical practice unless it tends to create trouble for the organization's sustenance. David Black is the organization's founder, has invested his efforts and hard work to create this goodwill and brand image in the market. He does not wish to lose any unwise decisions taken by his significant employees. The diagnostic tools that helped me gain a concrete experience on the manager's decision-making are the Moral Competency Inventory, Scoring sheet, interpretation notes, instant insight communication system, spiral dynamics, and 360-degree feedback (Zheng et al. 2015). The ethical dimension can be interpreted through the notes taken on the cases. The ethics of the organization, the person's ethics, and the system's ethics are considered while interpreting the decision-making's ethical dimension. 

The concrete experience also highlights the ethical theories that comprise deontology, utilitarianism, rights, and virtues (Bosupeng, 2017). I have observed that the four characters in the case study reveal their persona through the Kolb Learning Cycle, which shows Frank as divergent, Shelley as convergent, assimilator as David, and accommodator as Jim. 

Analyzing the assumptions with informed practice

The second stage is the abstract conceptualization. The accommodator and convergent are taken into view while making a hypothesis on the situation that has occurred. The persona who shows converging beliefs and attitudes has the capacity to resolve the problems. In this case study, Shelley has taken that position where the issue of the tender for the hospital project was solved by her (Holck et al. 2016). In contrast, Jim being the accommodator relied on his intuition and not on logic. When he saw Frank and Shelley together having dinner, he made it a point that the project's success was due to Shelley's influence, who is a part of the Ministry and helped Frank get the major part of the construction. David being the assimilator, gained the information from Jim. He relied on a concise and logical approach to ask Frank before drawing any conclusion about getting the complex project tender. 

The practice based on assumptions relates to the sense of ethics and safety followed in the organization. The leaders are always conscious of their actions, which need to be relevant to the situation, have a formal pattern, be respectful to the organization, and be rewarding (Wainwright et al. 2018). The practice, which is shown by Frank in the case study, relates to the respectful practice of getting information and nothing else. In contrast, Jim did not encourage the organization of the positive consequences of their decision-making. 

Analyzing the decisions made with diagnostic results and ethical theories 

As mentioned in the case study, the ethical theories may relate to deontology, utilitarianism, rights, and virtues. David Black is the person, in my opinion, who shows how utilitarianism is followed by practicing ethically correct actions. He is against taking any measure which goes against the ethics of the organization. However, the diagnostic results that I presume can relate to a manager's practice while changing the approaches are going through the correct way and not seeking any favor from the higher level of officials to get the work done (Telles et al. 2016). The rights to information can be obtained, which could have provided them with the alternate approach, and the tender could have been 

The case study's ethical risk can be found when the Corruption Commission detects any issues in the hospital project's tender. This ethical risk scenario shows us how we need to avoid such circumstances in the future while making any important decisions for the organization. As a manager, I would like to follow the trail of the ethical practice of the organization. I would ensure I implement nothing false or disrespectable decision. It is also unwise to immediately jump to any conclusion without making sure how the process of the decision has been made (Mullakhmetov, 2016).  The right to information can be the method through which people can accumulate critical information about a company or any project without hurting its ethical values. 


In summary, I may state that the objective of the self-reflection suggests that how we conduct ourselves in various situations and make important decisions. The organization which is served by us must not be affected by our unwise decisions. The unit's content has provided me with greater insight into how we must behave and conduct ourselves with the situations' moral triggers. The case study can be taken as an example to implement our learning and identify ourselves with the Kolb Learning Cycle and the learners defined by him.  

Case Study 2


The ethics of the society decide the rules and regulations of the society. Business is considered an integral part of society, and hence the business practices are also similarly focused on retaining the ethics of society. However, business ethics are slightly different than social or personal ethics. Ethics of business always influences the decisions of the management of an organization. The ethical business practices sometimes are detrimental to the overall profit of the organization. Business ethics are governed by society's ethical practices and fully incorporated into its sustainability. The diagnostic tool like interpreting notes, Kolb learning systems, and communication tools is added to evaluate the Rosen Pharmaceutical company's scenario. 

Analyzing the ethical dimension of a decision

Case study 2 states that the ethical consideration overlooked by the Rosen Pharmaceutical Company caused a disaster for 20 people in 18 months. Informing the customer about usage restrictions is essential in every sphere, especially in the medicine and pharmaceutical sectors. The ethical dilemma which was overlooked by the company grossly misappropriated the customers, and therefore even being the best solution for hair loss, the medicine could not be trusted. Understanding the ethical dilemma can be easily interpreted through the Kolbe Learning Cycle (Kusumah, 2020). The reflective observation in the first stage gives out a total loss of ethical consideration in the company's decision to the company's benefit. The diverging stage reflects how the company withheld certain critical information from its customers, thereby endangering their lives. The intention was to increase the company's profits and provide the customers a drug that could give the best results, and the decision was taken considering the risk to be 1.25%. 

The organization's decision was neither ethical nor for the benefit of the company in the long run. The different kidney transplants required by the companies' consumers brought down the customers' faith in the brand name. The diagnostic tools involved to get an insight on the ethics of the decision in the particular aspect have been conjured through the Scoring sheet, interpretation notes, and spiral dynamics (Kesuma et al. 2020). The ethics of the system and the organization's ethics are the factors that are required to be understood carefully to ascertain the ethicality of the decision. 

The case's overall understanding also highlights deontology, profitability, rights, and virtues (Turyakira, 2018). The observations alluded from the case depict the organization as hungry for profit and establishment in the market. Although the drug did make the company a famous one with multi-million dollar profits, the patients' Kidney problems negatively affected the company's brand name.

Analyzing the assumptions with informed practice

The second stage is the abstract conceptualization. The informed practice would have given the customers a choice, thereby enabling the company to remain ethical and improve its brand name and profitability. This aspect's management shows converging beliefs and therefore overlooked the 1.25% probability factor (Sroka and Szanto, 2018). In this case, the customers who were required to be transplanted with kidneys were the subjects whose counting the organization had overlooked, thereby necessitating the backlash. The information's importance was felt when the backlash was hard. 20 people getting affected due to drug usage in 18 months is a high rate and cannot be considered avoidable (Tenenbaum, 2017). If the customers were prior informed that a particular blood type was not suitable to use the drug, the high calamity rate could have been averted while the company's drug would also have gained fame.

The practices based on an assumption are more likely to show the future consequences than relying on blind assumptions, which can have a plethora of after-effects that are not catered for. The drug's informed practice could have saved the customers and the brand name of the company. Therefore, the informed practice technique is an essential ethical issue that needs to be practiced and should be enforced by law. The pharmaceutical industry should always abide by informed practice measures to avoid legalities and untoward incidents like in this case. As informed by Borges et al. (2018), although the probability factor of 1.25% is very low, since the issue is about the customer's health, I think the information should have been declared prior for the sake of ensuring brand loyalty.

Analyzing the decisions made with diagnostic results and ethical theories 

The deontological class of ethical theories has spelled that the obligations and duties must be followed strictly during decision making. The management's decision to overlook the 1.25% chance of kidney failure was a drastic step and cannot be tolerated in pharmaceutical practices. The pharmaceutical industry is a very tightrope walk since customer health issues are directly linked to its brand name. The non-dispersion of the information already possessed by the organization regarding a particular drug can be fatal (Vinnari et al. 2017). Such a lackadaisical approach should be renounced, and every effort to inform the customers about the discomfort of a drug is to be provided. My opinion regarding the case could have been the intimation of the drug's risks to the particularly sensitive blood abnormality holders to avoid such risks.


The case has been a fruitful understanding of the business organization's ethics and the non-informed practices that can cause major calamities in its functioning. The non-ethical practice of information suppression in the pharmaceutical industry is not agreeable. Hence, the pharmaceutical companies are legally entrusted to comply with all drug risks before the sale. I would have considered putting in the risk statement on the packaging itself, thereby being ethical and not hampering the great marketing approach.


Moral Competency Inventory Moral Competency Inventory 1Moral Competency Inventory 2

Task: Scoring Sheet

Frank Diabolo: 2

Reason: He intended to acquire the information and not manipulate the government authority's decisions. 

David Black: 1

Reason: He is the least objectionable in his behavior since he showed how ethics must be considered before incorporating any organization's decision.  

Shelly Chisun: 3

Reason: She is the person who tried to resolve the matter being the childhood friend of frank. However, she might have acted against the organization's ethics while passing on the vital information that may aid in bagging the project. 

Jim Driver: 4 

Reason: He is the most objectionable person. He did not even try to get the project even being the senior project manager. Also, he complained against Diablo and Chisun without investigating how the company bagged the project. On his assumption he decided without reaching any logical consequence. 

Task: Interpreting Note Case study 2

I disagree with the decision since the drug introduced must not harm even one person to such an extent that may cause kidney failure and kidney transplant. The minor side-effects can still be tolerated but the decision made by Rosen Pharmaceutical is not accepted since 20 people have suffered such degree of problem where they had to decide on kidney transplant. 

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