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PUBH6008 Programs to Create Awareness on Self-Management of Asthma in Australia Assessment 2 Answer

Subject Code and TitlePUBH6008: Capstone A: Applied Research Project in Public Health
AssessmentAssessment 2: Literature review
Length4,000 words
Learning OutcomesThis assessment addresses the following learning outcomes:
  1. Integrate and apply their knowledge and skills in public health
  2. Develop research skills and apply these to a public health issue
  3. Conduct a small literature review which critically analyses key issues on a public health research topic
  4. Define and justify a research question, based on the literature/public health issue, and outline its significance
Total Marks100 marks


By the end of module 3, student must provide to their learning facilitator a brief review of the literature on their chosen topic. The literature review must contain key references/theorists/researchers for the public health topic chosen. The literature review assignment must be designed to address the following questions:

  • Who are the key theorists/researchers in your public health topic?
  • What are the key issues?
  • What are the gaps in the existing body of knowledge?

The literature review should provide a basis for justifying a clear research question or hypothesis to be explored further.

You must also indicate the search strategy used for your literature review. For example, what were the key words you searched for, and which key databases or other sources did you use to conduct your literature review? (e.g. CINAHL, Proquest Public Health, Informit, Medline, Google Scholar).

Assessment Criteria:

  • Critical and comprehensive review of the literature (70%)
  • Clarity of research question/hypothesis (10%)
  • General assessment criteria (20%):
    • Provides a lucid introduction
    • Shows a sophisticated understanding of the key issues
    • Shows ability to interpret relevant information and literature in relation to chosen topic
    • Demonstrates a capacity to explain and apply relevant concepts
    • Shows evidence of reading beyond the required readings
    • Justifies any conclusions reached with well-formed arguments and not merely assertions
    • Provides a conclusion or summary
    • Correctly uses academic writing, presentation and grammar:
      • Complies with academic standards of legibility, referencing and bibliographical details (including reference list)
      • Writes clearly, with accurate spelling and grammar as well as proper sentence and paragraph construction
      • Uses appropriate APA style for citing and referencing research

General Assessment Criteria:

  • Provides a lucid introduction
  • Shows a sophisticated understanding of the key issues
  • Shows the ability to interpret relevant information and literature in relation to your chosen topic
  • Demonstrates a capacity to explain and apply relevant concepts
  • Shows evidence of reading beyond the key reading
  • Justifies any conclusions reached with well-formed arguments not merely assertion
  • Provides a conclusion or summary
  • Use of academic writing and presentation and grammar:
  • Complies with normal academic standards of legibility, referencing and bibliographical details (including reference list).
  • Is written clearly with accurate spelling, grammar and sentence and paragraph construction
  • Appropriate citation and referencing used (using APA style)


Topic: Effectiveness of health promotion programs to create awareness on the self-management of asthma in Australia


At present times health-related issues are affecting the population due to lack of awareness. Lack of systematic living along with an unhealthy environment and diet habit hampers the health of an individual which is also harmful to the national health record maintenance in Australia. At the present problem of Asthma increasing in a drastic way hence, the health care professionals are unable to develop a significant treatment that can take care of a huge number of people (Aihw, 2020). It is evident that the requirements of strategies are essential to promote the specific habits, which can ensure the development of the mental and physical health of common people. 

To reduce the risk of hospitalisation among the local people, self-awareness can reduce the chance of an Asthma attack that has been discussed in the research to accomplish the study (Bernal, Cummins, & Gasparrini, 2017). Critical discussion regarding previous research and other methodological selection is also going to be performed to increase the favourable environment to maintain the health of the people of Australia from getting sick of Asthma and can take care of their health by themselves (Spiranovic et al., 2016). It is evident that the self-management skills can enable the individuals to reduce the risk of hospitalization and thus it is essential to inform the mass to make them aware of the asthma condition. 


Health report of Australia in the year 2019, exhibits that 11% of the total population is suffering from asthma (Pentecost et al., 2019). Due to lack of proper self-management and reckless lifestyle affects their health and causes the issue in the different age group. The increasing number of asthma hospitalising facilities along with proper treatment becomes critical to fulfil the health care service to obtain a recovery. In this context, Erwin et al., (2016) stated that prevention is better than cure in asthma in which the performance of the population downturns that hamper the national economy. Comparing with other issue asthma is not transmitted through one person to another. It takes place due to unconscious inhalation and lack of protection to take most of the time in the industrial and polluted areas.

Strategic intervention for health care purpose is very much neglected in the social environment of Australia. Lack of awareness of the people regarding the cause and effect of asthma make them face a major complication during and after their treatment. According to the view of Kercsmar et al., (2019) socioeconomic condition of Australia is quite upgraded that can make the patient purchase health care service and the organisation to serve. However, the increasing cases of asthma cause the fall of the fluent treatment capacity. People are reluctant about the issue of asthma and the awareness regarding the issue is completely low that makes the local government fail to control the health-related complication (Spiranovic et al., 2016). With the technological advancement, people are available in different social media and interest of them can aware them regarding the benefits of avoiding asthma that has a huge lacking.

In this context Ndarukwa, Chimbari & Sibanda, (2019) stated that busy life and increasing pollution develops the risk of asthma. However, people are not taking care of their respiratory system which drags them towards severe asthma. The particular lifestyle also hampers the family of the individual and it completely downturn the flow of social movement and make people ill. On the other hand, expenditure on unwanted treatment of asthma also makes the people disturbed to pay the bill of the hospital. In such condition, the awareness program regarding health care could be a measure for the people to maintain those in their life to self manages the issue of asthma. Evaluation of the measures and assessment of the outcome can help the local government to modify the loopholes that can make the entire population attentive to prevent asthma from society.


In the research, the researcher is going to conduct secondary information to obtain different information regarding the health promotion strategies among the Australian population. Moreover, the report of the health care department of Australia and the collection of information regarding Asthma make the researcher analyse the condition. Apart from the report different previous research articles helps the researcher to conduct a critical analysis of the effectiveness of the promotional activity regarding asthma and increase self-awareness among the people (Ash et al., 2018). Application of the exclusion and inclusion criteria helps the researcher to make the data bank strong for the proper interpretation. The conceptualisation of the Boolean operator enhances the exclusion and inclusion process that indicates the helpfulness of the data on the effectiveness of health promotion.

During the time of searching the documents for information different keywords such as governmental intervention, awareness of asthma, health awareness program, barrier in treatment and medication etc to get exact literature. The attentiveness of the researcher towards the recent updates of the data helps to make the study powerful to achieve the successful analysis of the research. Rejection of incomplete information and unauthorised websites develop the data bank to prevent improper information that can manipulate the entire sense of the research (Chan et al., 2017). Quality of the study is a major need that is maintained by the researcher which is beneficial for the feasibility development of the study. It helps to identify the possible effects of the awareness program and suitable strategy that can generate self-management among the Australian population.

Theme 1: Overview of increasing Prevalence of Asthma amongst Australian Population 

According to the opinion of Cloutier et al (2012) asthma is a respiratory disease that affects the lungs as well as the airways of the body causing breathlessness, different episodes of wheeze combined with tightness in the chest because of narrowness in airways. This disease can affect individuals and is usually managed through medication treatment and changing lifestyle behaviour. In Australia, 2.7 million individuals comprising of 11.2 % of the population suffered from asthma in the year 2017-18. Furthermore, according to a survey from the data of 10 years, the trend of asthma has been increased among the population of Australia from 9.9% to 11.2% from 2007-18 (Shi et al 2012). This disease became frequent in Australia comprising of 10.8 % of individuals among the population of Australia since 2014. Besides, the rate of asthma is higher in females compared to males as observed in the year of 2017-18. Asthma became one of the common respiratory diseases among the boys comprising of 12.1 % as compared to girl comprising of 7.9 % since 2001 as stated by Cloutier et al (2012). The pattern of suffering from this disease is frequent among the Australian population.

The general manager of Information and program resources, Anthony Flynn suggested that the increasing reason for asthma in Australia is not evident but there are different factors to blame the frequency of this disease. Gandhi et al (2013) said that this inflammatory illness is triggered in the lungs due to the hyperactive reaction of the immune system.  Further, von Bülow et al. (2014) stated that the hygiene hypothesis can be considered as precise as an agent for causing asthma. The term hygiene hypothesis is a theory in medication that illustrates the evident fact of causing asthma. Therefore, if the children are particularly raised in the sanitized and clean environment, the immunity system does not get impaired due to less exposure to germs. 

Among the Australians aged over 55 years, asthma became a prevalence that develops into mortality and morbidity in comparison to other age groups also stated by Gandhi et al. (2013). It is complicated to treat asthma because of comorbid conditions. Self-management and treatment are not easy within this age group due to different prescribed medications for various conditions. Besides, Krstić, (2011) argued that it is necessary to create Health Promotion programs and awareness for managing asthma within the population of Australia. But, among the Australian population, there is a deficiency of awareness among the adults where few symptoms are indicative for causing asthma. Australia does not develop a strong emphasis on this disease and should create promotion directed at parents or the children. As per To et al. (2012) the interventions will be effective in managing the ill effects of the disease and special impetus shall be given on increasing the awareness amongst the individuals through healthcare programs. 

Diseases like asthma are treated according to the guidelines by controlling symptoms that involve patients in their execution and planning of the treatment. The patient suffering from asthma should be provided with proper education that will reduce the number of patients throughout the country. Shi et al (2012) also stated according to the health database and common medical research highlight that Australia focuses on the effectiveness of education programs with technology and knowledge that helps to achieve the objectives and goals to control asthma throughout the country. The hallmark of the disease includes reversible obstruction, chronic inflammation and limitation of airflow. It affects 10% of the Australian population due to environmental exposure, smoking cigarettes and change in Lifestyle combined with food habits are the main contributing factors that increase the asthma patients in Australia.

Theme 2: Asthma Educational Program as a Health Promotion Initiative to Increase Self-Management of Asthma Amongst Australian Population

Educational program related to asthma is conducted among various patients as are helpful learning approach, to increase the self-management of the disease among the population of Australia. According to Li, et al. (2014) the promotional initiative is designed that decreases the trend of suffering severely from asthma. A short program regarding self-management for few asthmatic patients during admission in a hospital as well as morbidity after hospital discharge has reduced, after implementing of the training program for increasing self-management.

Educated patients suffering from asthma should have enough knowledge regarding psychological and medical aspects for treatment as stated by Harrison et al 2012. Respiratory therapists, psychologists, physicians and social workers can handle the disease by establishing a comprehensive plan for treatment of the disease like asthma. The activities should be performed as a promotional initiative that will enhance the interest of self-management among the patients of asthma. Krstić, (2011) also argued that the patients among the population of Australia are provided with different education stations as well as therapy to solve the problem regarding the disease will reduce the symptoms of asthma and will improve the quality of life.

Self-management of the disease and promotional initiative decreases the use of medical resources by 32% that is a great benefit for the people suffering from Asthma. Moreover, Bosnic-Anticevich et al (2018) said that in the era of advanced technology, different health care providers are utilizing to deliver advanced education regarding self-management of asthma as a promotional initiative. The development of a web-based education program helps a huge number of patients to develop their asthma knowledge and controls the rate among the Australian population. 

Self-management of treating asthma should be a promotional initiative that should be conducted within medical communities combined with the engagement of the patient. Self-management of a patient is described as one of the essential practical implications for the Asthma Education Program. Further, it is argued by Chen, et al (2016) also considered as the perception of an individual according to the capability of performance to treat the disease like asthma in a self-management process. It is a general trend that the individual will observe regarding the success of other patients through educational programs. It will motivate them to engage themselves in achieving the goal of self-management. There is a direct association between asthma control and self-management. Low asthma levels can be created directly with self-management and that will increase the quality of life incorporated with self-management and asthma education programs stated by Li, et al 2014.

According to Steinemann, (2018) educational programs and promotional initiatives of self-management will not only increase the motivation but will also enhance the self-confidence combined with a positive self-image that will increase the capability of controlling the disease. Different types of encouragement and successful actions should be used as a catalyst for enhancing the interest of the Australian population towards the education program of asthma. The implementation of a self-management program will also stipulate the patients towards a strong commitment to achieving goals according to their capability.

Besides, Reddel, et al. (2012) also said consequent morbidity and asthma prevalence will increase with the time that will cover a huge number of people from Australia who suffer from this disease. This imposes a social, economic and personal burden on the community as well as on the individuals. There is a strong relationship between the knowledge of a patient about the degree of control of asthma combined with self-management to control the degree of help to save the life of individuals. Steinemann, (2018) said that this will also increase the overall status of health as well as changing lifestyle can be observed that will be beneficial for the population of Australia.

According to Gillman, & Douglass, (2012) the asthma self-management program is conducted as an interactive workshop for patients with chronic symptoms of asthma. This course develops to help individuals for learning the strategies that will enhance the conditions to manage and develop the confidence to perform the activities for controlling asthma. This workshop is conducted for 3 hours every week for 4 weeks within a community. The trainers are the leaders who have chronic asthma that helps them to understand the problems of the individuals in a better way stated by Reddel, et al 2012. This workshop program is available in different languages and named as Living Well.  

There are different subjects covered within this workshop that helps to learn breathing techniques and to evaluate different methods of treatment. Moreover, Krstić, (2011) also stated this workshop also helps in using the appropriate type of medications that helps to deal with the asthma problems and improves the conditions of the patients before getting worst. This workshop constructs a plan of self-management that helps to deal with the worst conditions. Reddel, et al 2012 also stated that it will also include different tool kits to study regarding self-management plans while suffering from asthma. The workshop will help to learn different types of strategies as well as skills to manage the health condition effectively that reduces the number of asthma patients.

Theme 3: Applying Health Belief Model and Self Efficacy theory for Creating Awareness Regarding the Self-Management of Asthma

According to Becker, & Abrams, (2017) the Health Belief Model is represented by social scientists in the year 1950 at United States health service to illustrate the failure of individuals in adapting the prevention of diseases. It also illustrates the detection of severe diseases at an early stage. Steinemann, (2018) stated that this model was used for responses of the patient’s different types of symptoms combined with the compliance of treatment associated with the medication. There are several constructions of health belief models that highlight the course of action of an individual depending on the perception of barriers and benefits regarding health behavior. 

Perceived Susceptibility: This explains the subjective perception of an individual regarding the risk to acquire a disease or an illness. According to Saini et al 2011 it is noticed that a wide variation in the feelings of an individual regarding personal vulnerability to a disease or illness still exists in the mind of an individual. An individual should not have any subjective perception regarding a disease or illness. This perception sometimes leads to vulnerability due to the perseverance of susceptibility. Gillman, & Douglass, (2012) stated that a person suffering from asthma should not depend on the personal feeling of that disease or illness that can create a vulnerable situation of a patient. Effectiveness of promoting health programs for creating Awareness of self-management regarding any disease or illness is required as Australia is one of the leading countries suffering from Asthma. The application of the HBM model will reduce the susceptibility of an individual regarding a disease or illness.

Perceived Severity: This highlights the feeling of an individual to leave a disease untreated or contraction of seriousness regarding and illness. The feeling of an individual is a wide variation regarding a disease that creates a social as well as medical consequences while evaluation the severity. According to Braithwaite, et al 2011 a person should not depend on the feelings or should not leave an illness or disease untreated like asthma. A person should consult a doctor regarding any disease or illness without any perseverance. Among the population of Australia perceived severity is the main problem that increases the trend of asthma leading to severe consequences. The HBM model should be implemented that will reduce the concept of perceived severity among the population of Australia regarding severe diseases like asthma.

Perceived Benefit: According to Chen, et al (2016) this illustrates the perception of an individual regarding the effectiveness of action available for reducing the threat of disease. This construction model of HBM highlights the action of an individual that should be taken to prevent diseases like asthma relying on the evaluation and consideration of both perceived benefit and percept susceptibility. This shows that a patient should accept the recommendation of health activities that will be beneficial to reduce or treat a disease stated by Becker, & Abrams, (2017). The application of this model will create awareness regarding the self-management of asthma among the Australian population. 

Perceived barriers: This explains the feeling of an individual on the obstacle to performing the health action that is recommended regarding a disease. The feeling of a person varies widely regarding impediments or barriers that often lead to cost or benefit analysis. Bereznicki, et al 2011 said that this model also shows the effectiveness regarding the action against the human perception that can be expensive or dangerous combined with unpleasant and time-consuming. Australia should create health awareness programs that will reduce perceived barriers and will recover the population of Australia from the trend of asthma. 

Cue to Action: This is the required stimulus for triggering the process of decision-making as well as to accept the health action that is recommended to an individual. According to Becker, & Abrams, (2017) the cues can be external and internal that includes chest pain as well as advice from family members newspaper articles and many others. The Australian population should follow cue to action in the HBM model that will help them in accepting recommendations of health action regarding asthma as well as to create awareness throughout the country.

Self-efficacy: This illustrates the confidence of an individual according to the ability to perform a behavior successfully. This type of construct is a part of this model as different behavioral theories are directly related to self-efficacy. This also shows whether an individual can perform the behavior desired to reduce the trend of disease among the population. Moreover, the application of this contract from the HBM model will help the population of Australia to develop their health system as well as to reduce the number of patients suffering from asthma. Self-management and self-efficacy will help in controlling the different types of symptoms as well as prevent the exacerbation that leads to attack. Further, Bereznicki, et al 2011 argues that self-efficacy will also help in achieving optimal control of asthma engaged with the treatment plan. Patients suffering from asthma should develop the habit of self-efficacy and self-management by monitoring the symptoms and behavior changes according to the action plan. Asthma training and education program is an important component for managing the disease and guidelines should be followed as per the workers of health care during the counseling of patients and asthma management.

Self-Efficacy Theory

According to Cloutier et al 2012 self-management and self-efficacy will help the patients suffering from asthma to recognize the symptoms of the disease as well as to follow the plan of treatment. Moreover, Shi et al 2012 it will also help in controlling the different environmental triggers combined with medical care in case of the worst situation. Healthcare promotion programs as well as activities of self-management will improve the behaviour of health along with internality and social support. Effective self-management and self-efficacy should be equipped with proper use of medical devices like inhalers and better utilization of medication. Educating the patients suffering from asthma for self-management and self-efficacy should be provided with a clinical setting that includes ED. According to Gillman, & Douglass, (2012) It is a common term for patients suffering from asthma and can be used only during self-management sessions. Implementation of self-management will not only help the asthmatic patients but also will be helpful for the parents during their ED visit. Further, Harrison et al 2013 also stated that the patients following the self-management and self-efficacy while suffering from asthma experience improvement compared to the asthmatic patients who do not follow the process of self-management and self-efficacy.


From the above findings, it is noticed that Australia is one of the leading countries suffering from severe asthma disease. The number of patients in Australia increasing day by day due to their exposure and smoking habits combined with a change in lifestyle (Becker, & Abrams, 2017). The pattern of suffering is higher in females and the Government of Australia should be aware of the increasing number of patients. It is also observed that this disease figures the Learns and affects the immunity system of an individual. This respiratory problem creates a breathing issue due to the development of narrow airways within the respiratory system.

Australia should mainly focus on creating self-awareness combined with self-management and self-efficacy that will reduce the morbidity of patients due to asthma problems (Chen et al 2016). The government should promote health efficacy programs that will help the population to learn various techniques regarding symptoms as well as ways to control asthma. Further, the training and development programs will also help the patient to learn regarding the medications in different situations according to the necessity. The promotion initiative will reduce the morbidity of patients suffering from asthma. Besides, education programs will provide proper treatment procedures highlighting the medical research and effectiveness of the knowledge and technology that will control the symptoms of the patient. This will also decrease the pressure of the hospitals and healthcare centres leading to improve the healthcare of Australia (Gillman, & Douglass, 2012). This respiratory disease has spread over the country and can be overcome by the utilization of medical resources that will be beneficial for many people to control asthma problems two different awareness and educational programs. Among these training programs, self-management and self-efficacy should be the focus of the people that creates a quality life to control the disease. The implementation of this program provides a commitment to enhancing the capability of the patients in any situation to get worsened. 

The prevalence of asthma also became a chronic disease that is destroying the health of a huge number of individuals within the country. Moreover, it becomes a burden for the family as well as for the community on social life combined with hampering of work-life of the patients. From the above finding, it is observed that the workshop should be conducted that will increase the awareness within the individuals suffering from asthma (Harrison, et al 2013). These workshops will develop the confidence to control the disease over the country. It is also observed that the model used for creating awareness of self-management will also develop control over asthma patients through different constructs. The implementation of the model will help to evaluate the reduction in the number of patients and will also highlight the course of action that is required to control the spread of asthma as well as the rate of morbidity. Further, it is observed that the rate of asthma patients can be controlled through exercise, proper food habits and routine lifestyle that will create an effective course of action to reduce the threat of asthma.

Research Questions 

Q1: How does promotion initiatives create awareness for self-management of Asthma amongst Australian Population? 

Q2: What are the challenges experienced by the Australian Population while incorporating self-management techniques for treating Asthma? 

Q3: What are the suitable challenges that can be proposed for improving the health promotion initiatives for self-management of Asthma?


While Summarising, it could be stated that there are rising instances of Asthma amongst the Australian population. It is affecting patients of all ages with starting from children to adults. While the female population is believed to be more vulnerable towards Asthma disease, the male section has not been behind in the race either. It is being believed that the Australian population have been struggling with these diseases due to lack of awareness amongst the Australian population. The self-management techniques have been negated which is not curing the disease at its early stage. In this context, inclusion of health promotion initiatives is deemed to be desirable as it would raise awareness amongst the consumers to ensure self-management for better treatment of Asthma. Certain initiatives of treating asthma have been discussed which includes educational programs and workshops for better management of the disease. The health promotion initiatives raised awareness amongst the individuals for taking precautionary measures at the early stages and treating them with utmost care. The application of the health belief model would be useful in making an individual understand that treating Asthma disease is essential and certain actions need to be taken individually for treating the disease. The efficacy theory highlighted the ability of an individual to manage asthma disease through some prevention technique. 

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