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PUBH6003 Report on German Healthcare System Assessment 2 Answer

Subject Code and Title
PUBH6003: Health Systems and Economics
Assessment 2:  Case Study
Part A: Group presentation
Part B: Individual written submission
Part A: 20 minute group presentation and submission of presentation
Part B: Case Study Summary 1,000 words (+/- 10%)
Learning Outcomes
This assessment addresses the following learning outcomes:
  • Understand the core competencies of public health workers, and how public health competencies can be fostered
  • Understand the rationale for and development of universal health coverage.
  • Analyse public health expenditure estimation strategies
  • Understand the role of government regulation of the healthcare sector
Total  50% consisting of:
Part A: 25%
Part B: 25%
Total Marks
100 marks


The opportunity to research a particular country’s healthcare system will facilitate understanding of the interdependent relationship between economics, health care and public health. You can begin to get an understanding of the way a country perceives health and well­being by examining the areato which resources are allocated, hoefficiently they are managed, and how effective they are in terms of health care outcomes.


Select a public health system in a country of your choosing (other than your own).

Part A: Group Presentation Assessment Description:

In a small group of 3 to 4 students prepare your presentation, discuss the following issues:

  1. How the public health system is both organised and funded. As part of this, describe the following:
    1. The percentage of Gross Domestic Product spent upon health and how this compares with Australia (or another country);
    2. Where the money to fund this system comes from;
    3. How expenditures for public health services, including prevention programs, are estimated.
    4. What the mix of public and private expenditure and services is;
    5. Whether a proportion of funding comes from development assistance for health or any form of innovative financing;
    6. The underlying trends (demographic, changes in treatment, or technology) which help to explain expenditure;
    7. The extent to which health coverage is universal.
    8. Any economic levers that are used, or could be used, to achieve better health outcomes in your chosen country.
  2. How your chosen country performs in terms of the key elements or building blocks of the health system (as identified by WHO 2007; 2009) e.g. are there key workforce shortages in a particular profession and how might imbalances be addressed; and is the workforce appropriately trained to develop core competencies?
  3. Explain what cost-­­benefit analysis and cost­effectiveness analysis are and how they could be used to assist with resource allocation in relation to analysing the health system (you are not expected to perform the analysis, but you are required to understand these key concepts and say how you might go about the analysis). Additionally, describe a potential health system reform you could implement in your chosen country to improve weaknesses in the system.

Part B: Individual Case Study Summary

In 1000 words (+/- 10%), write a summary of the key points from the three sections of Part A. This should include a concise summary of:

  • How the public health system is both organised and funded
  • How your chosen country performs in terms of the WHO’s key building blocks of the health system
  • A potential health system reform you could implement in your chosen country to improve weaknesses in the system


Part B: A report on the German healthcare system


The healthcare sector of Germany has been critically analyzed with respect to its organizational structure and funding. The report also compares the basic medical building blocks of WHO with the healthcare structure that is existent in Germany. A possible opportunity for reform has also been explored in the essay.

Organization and funding of Public Health system in Germany

The German medical care network is self-administering and is managed by various organizations and teams. This material explains the institutions participating with either the medical care program, the nature of the framework or why that is evolved over the measure of years. The nation's healthcare system is composed of three core aspects: ambulatory care, hospital treatment (the hospice sector), and equipment for reintegration. The agencies that are liable for operating the medical care program comprise unions and officials from different companies and industries, insurance insurers, administrative authorities, including Federal ministry of public health, medical organizations and self-help programs (Obermann et al., 2013).

This same exchange of decision-making powers between both the Länder, the national government and non - governmental organizations is a central feature of its German democratic structure – and particularly the medical system. In medical services, the state and federal governments customarily allocate power and authority to membership-based institutions (with regulatory schemes), self-regulated public insurance and insurer institutions, recognized as "corporatist bodies."These were all, in specific, illness assets as well as their organizations in the contractual health premiums (Koch et al., 2011).

 (Gesetzliche Krankenversicherung (SHI) framework along with affiliations of healthcare professionals certified to care for patients enclosed by SHI ("Statutory health insurance in Germany", 2020). Such neoliberal capitalist bodies are the self-regulated entities that utilize the funding and distribution of overall care by SHI, with one of the most important decision-making body becoming a Federal Joint Committee (Gemeinsamer Bundesausschuß). The civil Code Book (SGB) offers regulatory regimes; SGB V has resolved on specifics for SHI. 

In Germany the medical framework is comprised of four universal core values: 

  • Mandatory insurance: all will be protected by mandatory health insurance) so that their total profits fall below a defined limit.). 
  • Health coverage plan funding: insurance coverage is largely funded by taxes charged by covered workers and their families, though economic activity surpluses also apply. 
  • Cohesion concept: Within the German health care scheme, compulsory health service holders bear the specific responsibilities involved with the expense of medical treatment in the case of sickness.
  • Equal healthcare rights and sustained reimbursement of salaries when ill – based on income and price stage. 
  • Self-governance premise: Although the German state establishes the requirements for hospital attention, it is the duty of both the self-governing entities inside the medical insurance network to both coordinate and fund the specific healthcare care. 

The performance of Germany’s healthcare sector in terms of WHO’S key building blocks

A stakeholder planning of the positioning of the German growth collaboration towards reinforcing of healthcare systems discloses the focus zones and intersectoral frameworks of Germany's commitment to improving quality of care. These components were further connected to that same health care industry's essential elements, as characterized by the global health institution. The resulting process will be subsequently expanded with development evidence to establish a plan for improving integrated healthcare systems. This is organized from around WHO definition, which defines health services in terms of six key elements or "building blocks": Health service delivery, Health workforce, Technology, Health financing and governance.(Munir & Worm, 2016).

The GDC strategy through HSS follows the architecture for essential components of WHO health programs, including at the national and national stage. The German structure represents the key ties between the focus areas and intersectional strategies and the foundation foundations of the WHO health sector, as laid out in the position papers of the GDC. As being such, it is focused entirely on the strategy review discussed herein and may not involve evidence from health plan adoption. The current structure in Germany indicates that perhaps the basic components of competence/policy making, healthcare workers, health funding, and operational efficiency are obviously the next most relevant for the GDC framework to HSS, with the other key elements having a comparatively less substantial role.

Moreover, this classification of basic components indicates that only the cooperation and coordination and performance management of the private sector deals most adequately with the healthcare system. Yet this situation remained inadequate without adding the truth of the execution of the project. In a leading structural context, the various ties between the foundation foundations of both the healthcare industry, the relationship with the wider world and the ultimate complexities of transition also have to be conceptualized. Therefore, critical matters, such as how much these strategies make a significant contribution to achieving positive health outcomes, persist unclear (Busse & Blümel, 2014). 

Potential Health system reform in Germany

A general mandatory standard for review of the patients being treated can be implemented on a nationwide scale in Germany. This will help to increase the standards of care in the country, by acting as feedback and check mechanism on the healthcare sector of the country. As opposed to other nations, the German health care program often reveals places that require change. The poor experience numbers with the health sector, in general, show this; citizens perceive a necessity for substantial changes more frequently than in most other nations(Weil,1994). A further problem is the standard of service, given all of the changes. Germany is very seldom amongst these top nations in the OECD or EU15, but generally from around median, and occasionally even lesser. The segment into SHI and PHI represents one of the largest obstacles for the German public health system – with distinct threat tubs and distinct funding, availability and restriction resulting in injustices.

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