People With Physical And Mental Disabilities Assessment 3 Answer
Physical and mental disabilities are commonly increasingly and are having the extensive burden of health on economies. Proper medical facilities, care and support, are necessary to facilitate the patients for leading an independent life. Population dealing with such disease is increasing, and Australia has a substantial proportion of disabled people (ABS, 2017). Thus, the government is obliged to develop stringent legislation and policies to provide care and facilities to the patients.
The Australian government has implemented several programs, initiatives and policies which rely on global standards. In the care of disabled patients, the socio-economic well being of the patient is a vital step. Therefore various practices such as financial support, educational support and social acceptance can effectively be used for fighting against disease.
Around 4.3 million Australian people, or 18% of proportion, have few forms of disability (ABS 2017). Almost 32% of disabled people are suffering from a severe or profound disability. This percentage accounts for nearly 1.4 million people (ABS 2017). The disabled population is sometimes or always dependent on performing daily life activities like mobility or communication, and self-care. Whereas the majority of the people with disability has increased over time (in 2003 is around 4.0 million), the effected population by disability has been slightly decreased by 20% in 2003 (AIHW, 2020). The population of elder Australians with an intense disability will rise by 70% from 2006 to 2031. In other countries like the UK, an additional 40% of people with disability live with over the 2020 years to 2022 (Temple et al., 2018).
Mental disabilities also have a significant troll on the countries globally. Forty-seven millions of people are suffering from neurodegenerative disorder across the world. Studies suggest that this data can increase by 2030 up to 75 million, and around 132 million by the year 2050 (Prince et al., 2015). Risk of mental diseases such as dementia is estimated at around 63% in low and middle-income countries (Chan et al., 2013).
A statement by The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers (SDAC), states that an individual is declared as disabled if any one of the impairment is present at least for six months and daily activities are restricted. The complexity of a disease is determined based on the degree of supervision and assistance needed in three basic performances- mobility, self-care and communication. They are categorized under mild, moderate, severe and with intense limitation (AIHW, 2019).
Australian people with disability use social support services intermittently in their entire life. For participation in all facets of life, longer-term support has been used by others. The policy of Australia for the improvement of life of Australian people with disability, their carers and family members-informal supports, mainstream and specialist- is covered under the strategy of National Disability (DSS 2011) 2010–2020. Key aspects of the support are financial assistance payments, and specialist disability support services are supported by the government fund. Symptoms like dependency and abnormality are present among individual suffering from disabilities. This disease condition is overwhelming among family members and carriers rather affect sufferers, due to knowledge and awareness deficiency regarding disease condition it may results to obstacle and stigmatization during diagnosis confirmation and interventions (AIHW, 2020).
Financial burdens and Disabilities are interlinked. Globally disease cost of such condition is disproportionately dispersed and is huge. Because of the decrease in diagnosis and treatment gap possibility of cost increment is determined to be increased further (Wimo et al., 2013). The stress of the economy and psychological is huge on the caregiver and family regardless of large families, extension in a community group of low, middle income. In Australia, around $428 million were credited to Dementia-related health expenditure (excluding aged care expenditure) during 2015-2016, as stated in the Australian Disease Expenditure Study. It is also expressed that admitted patient in a public hospital contributed around $212 million of hospital expenditure (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2020). This determined figure includes care provided by the family members and others which are unpaid, and also social care is done by the community, residential, home setting professionals. As a result, it's a major concern about care giver's health because of the ill effect on the recipient's care (Xiao et al., 2014). Policies are unsustainable among high-income countries due to high cost when financing reforms are absent. The reliability of the conventional family care system is under stress because of cost increase and also demographic and social drift association along with economic growth and development.
For the support of the people with disabilities, policies have been framed by the Australian government. The Australian government has also provided guidelines for the implementation of planned activities, and disabilities are now identified as major health by the healthcare system and government. Therefore, disabilities are included in health care programs and enjoy federal recognition (Hunter & Doyle, 2014). Welfare systems like Dementia Support Australia, National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS), Disability Employment Services, Disability Support Pension (DSP) and department of Social Services (DSS) are implemented in Australia.
In 2013 The National Disability Insurance Agency (NDIA) founded the National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS). By this scheme, Australian citizens and residents of Australia under 65 years of age having any disabilities are permitted to receive fund support through the government of Commonwealth (National Disability Insurance Scheme, 2020). It is fact-based that majority of the Australian population suffering from disabilities are relieved under this scheme and are benefitted by NDIS and also their economic condition improves.
NDIS is substantial enough to mitigate the lives of disabled people. Apart from the community and health programs, families and carers of dementia patients require the support of funds (National Disability Insurance Scheme, 2020). The scheme also provides social security for people and permits them to live dignified lives. The NDIS also provides funds for eligible people as per the needs of the individual. The NDIS supports include the following:
- Daily living activities
- Behaviour support with therapeutic
- For the maintenance of the home environment support provided by the household task
- Design and construction for home modification
- Community, social, economic and daily life activities participation by people
- To get or keep employment in the open or supported labour market in the workplace
- Helps in equipment assessment, set up and training, mobility equipment, and vehicle modifications
Commonwealth Government provides funds to The National Disability Insurance Agency (NDIA). In the year 2019, the government spent $11.2 billion on NDIS (Parliament of Australia, 2019). At key centres in the entire country, NDIA offices are formed for the provision of critical support to the population. For the consideration of the participant's complaints related to the scheme, The NDIS Quality and Safeguards Commission (NQSC) has been set up (NDIS Quality and Safeguards Commission, 2020). For this above mentioned, around $11.2 billion on the scheme are expected to be spent by the government. As per the 2019 report, approximately 2,50,000 people are benefitted by the support of funds through NDIS (National Disability Insurance Scheme, 2019).
There are other welfare systems also available like the department of Social Services. The main source of the Australian Government, The Department of Social Services (DSS) is the source of social policy advice and handles the federal budget up to some extent. Under the National Disability Advocacy Program (NDAP), DSS funds organizations offer advocacy services among disabling people who protect, promote, and ensure full and equal human rights. It works along with other government and private organizations for managing varieties of programs and services for wellbeing in the community of Australia.
DSS manages Disability Employment Services so that help can be provided to the people with disability for work finding and job stability. By the programs, services, benefits, payments, and grants by service providers, Australians' mental health and wellbeing are also get supported ( NDIS, 2020).
Another important initiative is The Disability Support Pension (DSP). DSP is one of the largest Australia's income supports for an individual of working age group. DSP supports people of age 16 or above; however, under pension age and not capable of working due to disability. This covers people who are physical, intellectual or psychiatric disable and are not able to work for 15 hours or more in a week for a couple of years because of their disabilities and are also not able to have training activity which can improve their performance in upcoming two years (AIHW, 2020).
Another noteworthy Government-funded service for disabled is The Dementia Support Australia (DSA). DSA funds its area by the fund of Aged Care Services and dementia fund. This service offers support throughout a day every year to dementia patients (Dementia Support Australia, 2020). Separately from the primary care system, services of state and territory disabilities are also working at various levels for providing support to the population with disabilities (NDIS, 2020).
Conversely, people experiencing social stigma with the disease condition and focuses on promoting social acceptance on this group of residual is vital, which helps people to live a normal and active life. Therefore, community centres and health care staff play an important role in providing social well being among victims. On the contrary, public health researchers are not attentive to disable people (Krahn et al., 2015). Among both conceptions, the outcome is a disability and, to a limit, a 'failure' of public health. It is also found to be conflated among poor health (Kavanagh, 2020).
Due to different cultural perspective and lack of knowledge, homeless among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are in risk of not being accounted by the NDIS and not benefitted by supports for which they are allowed (Clare et al., 2017). Thus, the major concern of government is due to awareness and education deficiency among people. Though it an important aspect for the prevention of the disease to have awareness about disease condition (Department of Family and Community Services, 2012). The government should work collaboratively with the healthcare system to offers essential aspects of well being (Stupar & Moore, 2016). Under the NDIS scheme, the government concentrate on empowering the patients, which can be done by developing a tailored and customized package suitable for people (Rees, 2019). For fighting against the silent killer, imperative action is taken by governments and healthcare professionals collaboratively (Standing Committee on Health and Ageing, 2013).
The Australian government is among the first, to bring the issue of disabled people in legislation. Despite immense efforts, some keep aspects are still lacking. The welfare system should focus upon certain areas to benefit the disabled people. Continuing care, optimizing better management, physical and mental health by the early diagnosing is imperative (Wimo et al., 2013). Easy access to support can be provided by the 24-hour visiting respite services, counselling, age-friendly primary care health services, occupational therapy and cognitive therapy. Therefore, it is vital to form policies clearly which focus on the Powers of Attorney, Guardian appointments, death through a will, and Advance Care Directives (Rahja et al., 2018). The government should also encourage research and development about an innovative neurodegenerative disease like Medical Research Future Fund (MRFF) supports in the management of the neurological disorders includes encephalitis, autism and Alzheimer's disease (Department of health, 2020).
Proving care and support among the disabled population is a significant generalized issue present for few decades. Australia is not fortunate as a significant number of the population facing a different kind of disabilities requires support. Increasing the emphasis on intervention in the early phase and 'healthy' life away from residential and health facilities is the prime focus of federations which may also decrease care expenses (AIHW, 2020). The given discussion might help in understanding the current scenario of the welfare system for disabled people of the Australian government. Thus, more such studies are required to analyze the current scenario, so that improved guidelines and policies can be developed.