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NRSG371 Health Impact in Australian Population of National Health Priority Assessment Answer

 Supplementary assessment for NRSG371

Assessment: The assessment takes the form of a response to 3 short answer questions. Answers should be approximately 250-300 words per question.

The questions are:

  1. Discuss the health impact in the Australian population of the National Health Priority Area of Asthma.
  2. Identify a public health intervention (may be multidisciplinary) in Australia that seeks to improve a National Health Priority (NHP) related to Cancer. Describe how the Ottawa Charter applies to your chosen intervention.
  3. Describe the role of the World Health Organisation (WHO) in the provision of universal health care, public health and education.



1. National Health Priority Areas is the collaborative effort between the State Government and Commonwealth to establish policies in areas of higher disease burden to the general population in Australia. The key focus of NHPA is to reduce the possibility of morbidity and increasing the quality of life. It aims at improving the well-being of individuals with better health outcomes. NPHA encircles the care in areas like screening, prevention, and early intervention. It provides treatment, rehabilitation and infrastructure for health research. There are six NHPA in Australia which includes Cancer, Cardiovascular injury prevention, Mental ailments, Asthma and Diabetes. In 2012 Arthritis, obesity and dementia were added. Asthma is the sixth NHPA affecting approximately two million Australian with an estimated cost of $ 700 million to the community every year. Approximately 700 people die annually to asthma resulting in national asthma action plan development (Smith et al., 2016).

The policy has impacted the Australian population since its establishment in terms of reducing disease burden, mortality and morbidity (Smith & Herriot, 2017).  There has been an improvement in the indicators like life expectancy and daily adjusted quality of life (DALY). The health and well-being surveillance system has provided further evidence of the better-quality life and health outcomes of the individuals with asthma, also reduced social and economical impact of asthma among Australians. It has also resulted in reducing incidence, severity and risk of asthma. Although the impact of the NHPA on indigenous priority population was higher rather than in the non-indigenous population, counterintuitively the burden of asthma and the death rate has been reduced. However, the achievement of these goals has not been massive in terms of huge impact on the Australian population ("Life expectancy and potentially avoidable deaths in 2014–2016, Report editions - Australian Institute of Health and Welfare", 2020)

2. National Chronic Disease Strategy through Prevention, early detection, early treatment and self- Management is the public health intervention that seeks to improve a National Health Priority (NHP) related to Cancer in Australia ("The National Health Priority Areas Initiative – Parliament of Australia", 2020). National health priority has identified seven major cancers prevalent in Australia responsible for disease load. Population-based screening is done for early disease detection. Population-based screening in Australia for a population group is done currently for breast, Bowel and cervical cancer. BreastScreen Australia allows free mammography screening as well as follow for women aged 50 to 69 years. For cervical cancer screening is provided through general practice and community to aged 18 to 70. It has significantly reduced the mortality and morbidity for the disease. Under the same interventional program, national screening for bowel cancer is done to evaluate people from age 55-74 years. These population-based screenings are implemented in Australia in accordance with WHO Ottawa charter and principles. Ottawa charter implies as follows:

Built health public policy

National chronic disease strategy built the workforce in terms of nurses, doctors and other professionals for reducing inequalities and focussing on the need of the population ("The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion", 2020).

Creating a supportive environment

By enhancing the ability of informed decisions through developing infrastructure and information technology. Providing a multidisciplinary approach of GP, Community centres and hospitals.

Strengthening community actions

Through providing cultural approaches for prevention and care. Collaboration with socioeconomic, physical and mental disadvantaged individuals (Onyango, 2017).

Developing personal skills

Providing training to enhance skill to take self-care reducing risk behaviour and promoting health

Reorienting health services

Increasing funding, implementing evidence-based cost-effective approaches. Prevention and care

3. Universal health care is based on the health for all agenda set in Alma Alta declaration in 1978. Universal health coverage means that individuals and communities have asses to preventive, promotive, curative and rehabilitative health services which are their need in sufficient quality without exposing them to any financial hardship. UHC has the main objective as equity, quality services without financial constraint. WHO identifies UHC as their strategic priority, ensuring a goal of 1 billion covered under it by the year 2023 ("Universal health coverage (UHC)", 2020). In developing countries WHO assist by providing technical assistance for building national institutes to fill the critical gaps. While in advanced healthcare system WHO ensures public health by policy dialogue and future strategic support for improving the performance. WHO supports countries through research, innovation, guidance and leadership in fields like diplomacy, gender equality, equity, human rights and advocacy for health coverage. World health organisation supports countries for developing the health care system in the direction of achieving sustainable development goals and UHC. In public health and education WHO provides engaging partnership, setting the standards and monitoring their implementations, providing leadership in critical health agendas and working on ethical and evidence-based policy (Robert et al., 2019). 

World health organisation works for improving the accessibility and quality of primary health services through sustainable financial protection. WHO has a key contribution toward training the health workforce and supporting the participation of people through various community-based health policies. It also provides support in improving the access to medicines and other health products like immunisation, better monitoring and information collection. Hence, WHO plays a vital role in totality in supporting universal health coverage and public health (Baral & Dieleman, 2015).

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