MIHM303 Reflective Journal On Ethics And Responsible Management in Hospitality Assessment 1 Answer
Reflective Journal Entries Regarding Ethics, Justice and Responsible Management in Hospitality
The journal entries highlighted in the essay are integrated with responses to the topics selected, resembling the importance of ethics in business in the context of hospitality management and the challenges faced by the organizations while following unethical business practices. The response is indicated towards the articles selected to emphasize on the ethics, justice and responsibly managing the hospitality business.
Journal Entry 1: Justice and its types
The term justice poses different denotation according to the situation of people demanding it and the appropriate time to seek it. The common understanding of this term suggests justice as punishment to the convict who committed a crime. Hence, it can be arguably presented as the concept of introducing fairness, morality, and righteousness that the individual practices in society. The activities performed in the context of business is governed by highly developed principles termed as ethics that support in guiding every decision taken by people associated with any organization (White et al. 2016). The widely used term justice can be served through several approaches that direct the activities performed by any business organization operating under any industry.
The various approaches that can be discussed on the types of justices reflect distributional justice, procedural justice, capabilities, and recognition. According to Rawls (2009), distributional justice is embedded in a variety of ranges that comes as physical commodities and services for the en masse comprising of food, retail services, healthcare, and several other items. The new concept of equity is incorporated instead of the traditional equality concept in achieving distributional righteousness. The procedural concept of getting justice relates to the decision-making process which supports in resolving conflicts (Shahzad 2018). The idea that emerges from this concept relates to the fairness in decision-making where both parties seeking justice are not treated with impartiality. On the contrary, the institution takes the scope of listening to both the parties, analyze the situation with critical outlook, and provide justice based on the evidence.
Significantly, Rawls (2009), reflects that, the recognition approach of justice is unique as it exists with cultural and social values and norms of the society which differentiates people based on their social status. For instances, in the third world countries like Nepal, India and Pakistan, the corrupt politicians are pardoned by the judiciary when they offer huge bribe while the general mass is convicted even with small crimes. The fourth approach is capabilities justice which focuses on disposing of equitable opportunities to all with the motive to create a fair and just society irrespective of their ethnicity, religion, caste and gender.
After understanding the formal definitions and types of justice, the question that makes me concern is, whether the normative ethics and justice are interrelated or independent to each other?
Journal entry 2: Intergenerational Justice
The term intergenerational tends to hint at following several practices through generations. Intergenerational justice hence justifies the term of practicing good moral relations and values in the society which can be effectively established for the future generations as well. The moral responsibility of the organization gradually increases, which holds obligations towards the animals, environment, and the future generation on whom the balance of justice and fair treatment to all will entail upon. Summers and Smith (2014), asserts that, the economic, social, environmental, and psychological aspects stand as the basis of deriving intergenerational justice with the existence of fair treatment met for the adults, children, youth and seniors of the society. According to Gosseries (2008), the modalities of intergenerational justice depend on the authorization, prohibition, and obligation towards the community on specific aspects.
The government also plays a part in establishing the intergenerational justice for a given period supporting the transition of a generation with social policy implementation in budgeting for the economy. The youth must understand the implication of the intergenerational justice, which hints at past rules and regulations, experiences, uneven justices which subsequently impact the future generation. The social justice and elderly care also impact the intergenerational justice where the youth have to resort to specific policies while caring for the elderly people while providing confidentiality and respect to them.
Certain areas are like environmental sustainability, climate change, and global warming issues which encompass the intergenerational equity. All these changes may adversely impact the future generation who may demand sound intergenerational justice. An example of sustainability that has been questioned by a young girl of the present generation, Greta Thunberg, seeks equity in the climate change and sustainable factors to be implemented for the environment for the future generation (Jung et al. 2020). Therefore, her protest has been a movement for environmental justice from the elected officials who have been responsible for providing security from environmental degradation but have failed miserably. Intergenerational justice, therefore, can be identified with the living standard of the generations with striking inequities that have been observed through the ages. Significantly, the vulnerability of climate change has severely impacted the children and the elderly people where they face more natural disasters like COVID 19, an epidemic taking the form of pandemic and killing people all over the world (Sanson & Burke 2020). It is needed to be comprehended by the policymakers that safe and healthy policies of environment will enable the children to use safe drinking water, continue their schooling, enhanced environment of education while lack of resources will cause hindrance to intergenerational justice of their well-being.
My concern is this regard is, do the governments really acknowledge the intergenerational justice, as it hardly serves their fixed term at office?
Journal Entry 3: Importance of business ethics
The term ethics relates to the moral code of conduct followed by an individual in a given set of activity. The ethical complication needs to be eliminated through the implementation of the right set of business ethics, which can also be referred to as business principles. The ethical options from several activities are the essence of business organization which is present in every sector and every industry. It can also be implied that corporate social responsibility and ethical practices of an organization can be easily blended in a single term serving the purpose of the business practices (Ferrell et al. 2019). The hospitality management strictly follows the ethical considerations in the business as this industry directly deals with the customers, suppliers and employees who are perceived as the stakeholders of the company.
The code of conduct and code of ethics are the most important aspects that have been inducted in the hospitality sector, where the employees must strictly follow them in their regular practice. I perceive, it is my moral and ethical obligation to follow the ethical responsibility towards my trade job as an employee of this hotel industry. The benefit that I have realized of the business ethics as incorporated by all the hoteliers is no tolerance to malpractices and corruption in the business. This facility of acceptable practices helps the business organization to gain the trust and confidence of the customers. As long as the business organization will enjoy the trust and faith of the customers, it will experience a competitive advantage in the global market. I have observed recently that in the fierce competition also the hotels which are located in close proximity does not engage any unethical practices like overcharging the customers, reducing the amenities of the hotel, or maligning the brand image of other competitors.
Business ethics also look into the perspective of protecting the rights of the employees and customers. The right to information, freedom of rejection is conscientiously followed in this sector. The customers are always served the fresh food, washed and new toiletries and informed about the practices of the hotel with all channel of information possible. Business ethics have reduced employee turnover and have engaged an efficient supply chain for the organizations (de Bakker et al. 2019). The farm-fresh raw materials are sourced from the farmers without financially exploiting them, and the suppliers are paid better rates following transparent, ethical practices and policies. As an employee of the hotel industry, it will be my moral responsibility to inform the customers if any changes in price are made or report against any personal property or loss of belongings of the customers.
After reading the journal, the question that strikes my mind is, with the advent of the pandemic, do we need to revise the business ethics in hotel industry, giving more emphasis to the safety and hygiene of the customers?
Journal Entry 4: Corporate Governance
The combination of legislation of business and process, which helps in controlling the operations of a business organization is recognized as corporate governance. Corporate governance defines the system of incorporating principles, procedures, policies, and clarity in roles and responsibilities of the stakeholders in overcoming conflict of interests. This system of governance also indicates the presence of multiple participants like the stakeholders, shareholders, Board of Directors, and the management of the company (Kwan and Lau, 2020). As an employee of this hotel industry, it will be my primary lookout to implement the policies like fair treatment to all, anti-discrimination policy, anti-harassment policy, and equal opportunities for all with just and appropriate decisions.
The risks of the firm are mitigated by employing corporate governance which supports in sustaining the brand image of the company. The integrity of the company is demonstrated with the help of corporate governance which engages multiple investors for the business organizations in the hospitality sector. The role of the Board of Directors is essential in the corporate governance of any organization. The trust acquired by the management help in accumulating finance for the growth of the company that helps is the long-term establishment of the company with trust factors in the market. The investors bank on this credibility of the management board to invest for a long-term in any renowned company. Robust corporate governance supports the growth of the company by recruiting better talents from the market where the employees are instilled with the objective to serve the customers with dedicated engagement.
According to my comprehensiveness on corporate governance, the corporate image of the hotel business is built with significant nuances which set exemplary notes for the rivals of the industry to follow. An example of Park Hyatt at Sydney can be cited here, which has shown remarkable relations with the investors. The company exhibits well-defined corporate leadership, along with maintaining a proper committee charter (Zhao, 2016). The hotel has provided pertinent documents of governance to the investors. The delicate distinction touch of uniqueness is displayed in the hotel, which gives a plethora of enjoyable experiences for the customers. This customer delights help in building mutual trust and confidence in the corporate governance among the investors. The negative consequences are faced by business organizations when they resort to malpractices with unreliable factors observed by the investors. The board of directors must ensure financial stability and transparency while allocating fund for the supply chain, human resource and other resources for the company.
My concern over Corporate Governance is, how can strict implementation of ethics, make the corporate governance even more meaningful?
Journal Entry 5: Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is the term used to define the responsibility of the companies towards their society and stakeholders. It is essential for the companies to address the CSR policies that strike a balance between their profitability earned through revenue and expenditure on philanthropic causes that involve planet, people and profit. The company adopting this 3P's is also known as Triple Bottom Line (TBL). This TBL of the companies ensures that the people of the corporation are benefitted with the profit earned by the company; the environment is protected through sustainable policies, and the payoff is re-invested in several forms to provide philanthropic services to the community which helps the companies to flourish their business. The community benefits are the primary goals of CSR incorporated by the companies.
I have observed that the impoverished communities are promised to be uplifted through the theoretical basis of developing CSR policies by the companies. Mostly the companies look after the suppliers and customers with low interaction with the community development. If I get the opportunity to be placed as a manager in a hotel, I would like to coach the employees on the CSR policies that indicate over-all development of the local and global communities (Lyons, 2016). The customers demand also becomes a part of CSR to be fulfilled. The goals of the companies related to CSR are sometimes ambiguous, which keep their stake high in the global market while the reputation of the company can be maligned if they do not follow the policies and procedures. For example, UNICEF has been instrumental in addressing the shortage of food in many third world countries.
Being an employee of a reputed organization, I might suggest reducing wastage of food and creating dry food bank which can be transported to different places where the communities face such shortages (Cameron, 2020). An example of Arnott can be suggested here which has been instrumental in donating towards the Flood Relief fund in Australia owing to the food shortage felt at the remote corners in Australia. The social development goals for the community and its people will help in creating better credibility for the organization that takes into view the welfare of the employees, environmental consideration through reduced carbon emission and pollution and investing the profit in philanthropic purposes.
My question here is, even after the widespread benefits of CSR seen all round the world, why is the Australian Government hesitant to come up with a separate legislation on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) that mandates the companies to report sustainability?
Journal Entry 6: Ethical Decision-Making
The ethical standards follow the sources of utilitarian workplace culture, rights of the people, and fairness injustice, seeking the common good, and leading the organization by virtue. The exemplary organizations set examples of ethical decision-making for their employees and clients, which improves their relationship while building sustainable progress for the companies. I have observed through authentic sources of journal and article readings which hint at the benefits of maintaining equality and a fair workplace culture that supports in the retention of the employees and bring investors for the organizations to develop. The management in the hospitality business needs to identify the rationale of workplace culture, instilling honest dealings among the employees and serving justice in the situation of conflicts.
The ethical decision-making model of the organization performing in the hotel industry must take into account the rationale of the decision that may impact the stakeholders of the business. For example, a hotel business organization may choose to induct local farmers to produce local crops for the restaurant and food servings. The import criteria may be totally avoided by the company (Bazeman and Sezer, 2016). This decision may impact the taste of the customers and other stakeholders involved in the business. Hence, relevant decisions must be implemented after considering and evaluating all the available options in the community.
I have collected thorough readings from different sources which hints at the significant approaches inducted in the ethical decision making. They are utilitarian approach, rights approach, justice approach, common good approach, and virtue approach. The rights approach can be complicated to deal with as there are sentimental values of the customers related to their rights to know the menu served by the hotel which also triggers religious beliefs may like “halal meat and vegetarian menu on the platter served to the customers (Chen et al. 2020). The common good approach, on the other hand, looks after the common good of the people like the availability of fresh toilet kits in the hotel rooms with sanitizers and disposable masks.
The emerging concluding thoughts that help me develop an insight on the ethical and justice implications pursued by the hotel industry that effectively retain a good relationship with its customers, employees and other stakeholders in order to sustain in the competitive market—the ethical consideration help in building brand value of the company among its rivals. The employees also need to follow the trend of being just and fair in their dealings with the customers. The mutual relationship will help in building a strong network of human resource, which enables the companies to perform their best.
My question in this regard is- what are the possible reasons that disallow the leaders to make ethical decisions?
Response to Saran (Journal Entry 1)
Thank you, Saran, for highlighting the role of ethical leadership in the Hospitality Industry. Leadership is an evolving process. It helps the leader as well as his followers to walk on the right path and attain the goals set. As the world is growing at a faster pace, and the organisations are in a hurry to stem their foot in the market share, the importance of ethical leadership comes into the picture. Values such as honesty, fairness, consideration and trust define the ethical norms that must be deeply rooted in an organisation. Also, the Sustainable Developmental Goals (SDGs) guide the organisations to conduct their functions in such a manner that they do well to society. (Jones et al., 2017) It is unfortunate that the hospitality industry, which is based on the trust of customers, is also witnessing the unethical behaviours from the end of employees. Nonetheless, the role of a leader in such circumstances is to ensure that the employees hold ethical behaviour towards their jobs. To instigate the employees to do better, the leader himself has to set an example by ethically performing his job. (Nicolaides, 2019) The Code of Conduct must be followed religiously, and regular training must be conducted to make the employees aware of the new concepts of the hospitality industry in the evolving world. ("Code of Conduct | Australia Council", 2020) Also, the policies of the hotels must be upgraded in such a manner that they comply with the code of conduct. Also, there should be an inner motivation to do better, and that comes with a clean heart. So, the leaders must focus on their inner-self as well.
Response to Bibek (Journal Entry 2)
Thanks very much, Bibek for writing so well on the importance of Ethical Leadership. As rightly said by you, ethical leadership is a moral concept, and it defines the personality of the person based on his performance. It is high time that people have become so profit earning-driven that their conducts do not do justice to the commitments of the Ethical Code of Conduct. ("Code of Conduct | Australia Council", 2020) In this context, one should learn the importance of ethical leadership, its implications and values that it adds to work. The leaders must recognise the potential factors that help the organisation strive, but at the same time, not at the cost of ethical values. Ethical leadership has the potential to upgrade the working culture and to motivate the subordinates to resort to actions that promote a higher level of integrity. When the leader understands and recognises the efforts made by subordinates, they respect and trust the leader. Also, when we do well; we attain inner-peace, and it is an essential aspect of mental wellness; which in turn increases productivity at work. (Dhar, 2016) Appropriate decision-making based on strict rationales and constant communication with the stakeholders, helps the leaders attain their goals. All this comes hand-in-hand when the ethical behaviour is inculcated within, powerfully.
Response to Kah Yen Boon (Journal Entry 3)
I appreciate you Kah Yen Boon, for your views on community engagement and thank you for being so insightful on this. In this globalised world era, community engagement plays the role of an inevitable aspect that is also, a powerful tool at the hands of the organisations. Community Engagement comes in different forms, serving a common purpose, enhancing customer services. Community engagement, when it comes to the hotel industry, is mostly linked to the customers. It may involve a series of activities that can be taken up, that gradually result in creating a comprehensive engagement that allows the hotels to stand out to the best among others. Social media indeed is one of the best engagement methods, especially when the world is suffering a pandemic, and the hotel industry has suffered a setback. The hotels must build their brand reputation by stating the measures that they have taken during the pandemic and show their commitment towards the customers’ safety during their stay at the hotel. Brand reputation is the crucial element that the organisations rely on. The community engagement can help the hotels evaluate the effect their service have upon their customers and is considered as one of the successful measures to sustain the customers and attain customer loyalty. (Rather & Sharma, 2017) Community engagement can help the hotels elevate their position in the market tremendously. It assures the customers that the hotel is committed to social welfare and values the society as a whole and values its involvement in the functioning as well.
Response to Esther Kong Li Ping (Journal Entry 4)
Thanks a lot, Esther Kong Li Ping, for discussing the ethical issues that come into picture while we are moving at a faster pace in the era of globalisation. They not just affect the business functioning but also harm the environment, society, economic and political structure at large. Many times, the organisations face the moral dilemmas while resorting to ethical misconduct, due to the economic and technological changes happening around. (Ast, 2019) On the one hand, we need to move parallel to the advanced, globalised world, but on the other hand, we have to take care of the ethical issues that are bound to arise. Globalisation has led the countries to connect economically and culturally. However, every country has its different set of legislations, policies and other methods. Some of the evident problems that are likely to arise while we step into globalisation are environment, human rights, gender equality, labour welfare, etc. (Ghosh, 2020) It can be said that the organisations can prevent all such ethical issues if they abide by the international conventions on environment, human rights, labour rights and other such problems. Ethical conduct prevents us from doing any harm, and such the common ethical issues that arise out of globalisation can be dealt with by abiding by the conventions and most importantly, the Code of Ethics. ("Code of Conduct | Australia Council", 2020)
Response to Sabita (Journal Entry 5)
Sabita, your journal has highlighted an alarming situation and emphasises on the need to lay focus on environmental safety. The wedlock of environment and economy was inevitable, as a striking balance between both became essential when the manufacturing took place at its all-time high after the 1950s. The concept of Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) is in line with the same. It helps the organisations analyse the impact their activities might have on sensitive issues such as health care, transportation, education, environment, etc. and also helps them prevent any harm. (Hundloe et al., 1990) Another concept, Social Cost of Carbon (SCC) is an effective tool at the hands of the governments across the countries, by which they can control the environmental damage and hold the organisations liable for the same. The Conference of Parties (COP) 21 turned out to be a historical event that took place in France in the year 2015. Nearly the whole world aimed to combat climate change happening due to high carbon emission and allow our future generations to live in a cleaner environment. ("UNFCCC COP 21 Paris France - 2015 Paris Climate Conference", 2020) A lot of measures have been taken globally, to tackle the issue of environmental harm; however, a lot is yet to be done. However, I firmly believe that environment is more of an emotional issue that we must deal with. Community awareness at greater levels is the need of the hour and a powerful mechanism that can help us combat the issue of environmental damage.
Response to Tara (Journal Entry 6)
I would like to thank you Tara for such a valuable article that you shared with us. In the hospitality management sector, CSR has a huge role to play. The responsiveness towards CSR is a great measurement parameter of the hospitality industry irrespective of the country where it is. The Corporate Social responsibility of a particular hospitality management industry is by itself a motivator for the great work undertaken by the industry for the benefit of the people. The hotels and restaurants that come under the hospitality management sector are highly prized with different links and memberships, which can, in turn, be utilized for the benefit of the people. The excess food of every restaurant can be distributed to the homeless. The used but re-usable goods can be given to the needy (Ortiz-Avram et al. 2018). Hence, I believe in the efficacy of the hospitality management industry towards uplifting the condition of the poor people in every country is boundless. Most of the hotels and restaurants also do ensure that the right approach towards CSR is undertaken for the benefit of both the people and the corporation itself. Earlier, the notion was that the hospitality industry CSR is a morality enhancer of the owner. But slowly as the Small and Medium Enterprises (SME) in this sector are duly stressing on CSR it has been evident that CSR is not only an owners prerogative but is an intertwined aspect in every Hospitality management industry be it large or small. This approach taken by all industries, including SMEs of the sector is a boon to the nation where the organization is functioning and ensures enough face value to the organization.