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MIHM303 Journal Entry Responses Assessment Answer

MIHM303 Ethics, Justice and Responsible Management in Hospitality

Please write journal entry on:

1. Understanding justice & its types and Intergenerational Justice of 300-350 words

Please write response of 200 words to journals attached below
1. Ethical decision-making based on a cost-based analysis tool to evaluate the outcome  

2. How community engagement strongly influence business

Ethical decision-making based on a cost-based analysis tool to evaluate the outcome

Ethical decision-making is the process of choosing and evaluating different alternatives with ethical principles in a consistent manner. It is necessary to eliminate and perceive unethical options and select the best ethical alternative while making ethical decisions (Markkula Center for applied ethics 2015). Commitment, consciousness, and competency are required in the process of making ethical decisions. Regardless of the cost, the desire to do the right thing is commitment. Consciousness is applying moral convictions to daily behavior and the awareness to act consistently. Competency is the ability to develop alternatives, foresee potential consequences and risks, and to collect and evaluate information. To analyze decisions, most businesses use cost-benefit analysis (Blink 2016). The process used to measure the benefits of a decision minus the costs associated with taking that action is known as cost-benefit analysis (CBA). They sum the benefits of an action and then subtract the costs associated with taking that action. Measurable financial metrics such as revenue earned, or costs saved because of the decision to pursue a project is involved in a CBA. It also includes costs or effects from a decision such as customer satisfaction and employee morale and intangible benefits (Will 2019). However, when we consider ethical CBA, the outcome may be different from usual. It may harm the decisions taken by the businesses. An example would be the Ford Pinto case, where the company has to decide on whether to remain still by ignoring the problem and pay for the death of people who died from the defective motor engine or fix the engine by buying back from their customer which resulted in being expensive. In this case, as an ethical decision, the company should be responsible for the damage and should fix the problem even if it is costly (Joey 2014). Human life is precious, and it should not be measured and valued with money. To take an effective decision in the future, it is important to first recognize an ethical issue, get the facts, evaluate alternative actions, decide, and test it and then act and reflect on the outcome. This is the framework for ethical decision making made from the debate conference at a university (Markkula Center for applied ethics 2015).

How should businesses decide the result of CBA? Should it be ethical? And should a business consider the value of human life and wellbeing for the greater good? 

Journal Entry 6: 

How community engagement strongly influence business. 

An example of Hilton Worldwide. 

Community engagement is an excellent strategy for every organization to build relationships and enhance brand awareness and visibility. As community engagement is crucial for a sustainable future, businesses are able to gain sustainable competitive advantage by encouraging community engagement through taking part in community engagement initiatives or sponsoring community programs (Forbes 2019). A survey by conducted Corporate Community Investment in Australia shows that among 115 large companies, 75% of them are increasingly considering community engagement as a significant contributor to their long-term commercial interests. (Green Hotelier 2012). 

Community engagement is defined as the initiatives that business adopts to strengthen its relationships with, and make contribution to the well-being of, the communities in which it presents or impacts (Green Hotelier 2012). As corporate social responsibility, creating community engagement initiative is the most visible way for business demonstrating its ethics. Community involvement is not only the right thing to do, but it also offers enduring benefits for all stakeholders. 

Community engagement are now approached by more creative and innovative way instead of purely corporate philanthropy in the past (Kongs 2018). Taking Hilton as a great example of building strong relationship with community, Hilton has launched wide range of global and local initiatives that bring to life Hilton Worldwide's responsibility and sustainability strategy, One of the most successful programs is a Youth Career Initiative named Youth in Hospitality Week as an annual global awareness initiative that promotes hotels to hold job fairs, career advice workshops to encourage raise awareness of career hospitality and connect young people to various job opportunities. In 2016, Hilton has successfully held more than 1,100 events that reached over 102,600 youth worldwide (Hilton 2020). Creating such a community engagement initiative allows business to attract and recruit more talents, improve overall performance and reduce turnover rate. community engagement


Green Hotelier 2013. 

Moreover, since hospitality and tourism industry depend strongly on the local environment, Hilton has put many efforts on reducing its environment footprint as listed in picture below. According to Nassetta (2013), Hilton Worldwide president and chief executive officer, Hilton Worldwide, ‘when we create value for our business and society, we contribute to these issues in a way that is sustainable into the future, and we inevitably impact an issue that is far greater than our own business.". As a result, by demonstrating strong values andglobal results  a commitment to community, Hilton has successfully built strong brand image and attract more investors, as well as employees and loyal customers to become a leading global hotel chain in industry.


Journal Entry Responses

Understanding justice & its types  

Justice is defined as how one can have legal implications in the legislation process of the State, and Society. It is a way a human living can be lived with the framework of ethics and social values. Justice can be based on the selfish actions of people and how one can secure a fair distribution; equal treatment and it would be similar to the proportionate, rewards for all. Justice stands for the harmony which exists between the individual interests along with the basis of the society. Justice as per the political theory is described as how the opposing laws, policies, feeling low decisions and actions of the government. Justice has been defined as how there can be a key aspect of human life. The word Justice is also explained as to how there can be men who would be tied with a close relationship. Justice would further help to diagnose the harmony's values and to develop further relations (Ross, 2019).

Key Features of Justice:

1. Justice is observed to be the key relationships of persons within society.

2. Justice is also known by the virtues of the values along with the traditions of society.

3. Justice is viewed as human behavior and obligation with the aim.

Types of Justice:

1. Social Justice:

Social justice is to defined as how there can be a large number of the clauses, which would hold uncertainty in the equality, and also there would be no discrimination that could be faced due to the religion, caste, creed, color, sex or status.

2. Economic Justice:

Economic Justice is understood as how there can be social justice that could also vary due to the economic system which has been a concise part of the social system. Economic rights along with the opportunities are also obligated to be how there can be individuals dependent on the entire social system (Lind, 2016).

3. Political Justice:

Political justice is identified as how there can be equal political rights along with facing the opportunities within the country. The problem of facing discrimination is due to religion, color, caste, creed, sex, birth, or status. 

Intergenerational Justice 

Intergenerational justice is understood as the key extent to which one can develop the character of moral relations that can be followed throughout generations. Depending on intergenerational justice can also identify the ways through which once can also formulate the ways on which there can be a particular moral responsibility along it holding the obligations. Intergenerational equity has also been viewed as how there can be economic, psychological, and sociological contexts, which would help to derive the fairness or justice that would exist within the generations (Meyer, 2018). Depending on the key concepts of the fairness in justice, the dynamics which can be observed within the children, youth, adults, and seniors, is how important it is implement the treatment and interactions. Further, it can also be an evaluated through the way that could identify the fairness between generations that has existed in between the living and generations. Intergenerational justice is defined as the two dimensions (savings/dissavings) along with having the three modalities (prohibition, authorisation, obligation). The justice is further explained as the successive ways of the indirect reciprocity and how there can be mutual advantage, the utilitarian approaches as per the egalitarian theory of intergenerational justice.

Another implication of the intergenerational justice is how it would occur over a period of time within the set transitioning generation having a social policy, along with identifying the government budget-making. It is further important to understand how intergenerational justice can also be experiencing uneven justice, some past legislation rules, experiences and findings, which can further cause implications to the future generations that can further also share the consequences. Intergenerational arises also due to elderly care and social justice. Similarly, the intergenerational equity has also been explored as the environmental concerns and depending on the sustainable development, understanding of global warming along with facing climate change, there can also be a significant problem that would be shared by the future generations. Intergenerational equity has also been identified as the standard of living, and the importance of the inequities can be observed in the living standards that can be due to the different ages and generations (Lind, 2019). 

Journal 1-: Response

In the journal entry of the “Ethical decision making based on the cost analysis tool", I agree with the responses shared by my colleague. Ethical decision-making is defined as the process, through which it would be helpful to evaluate  how there has been fading ethical ways of finding an alternatives with ethical principles. The steps of how there can be a key elimination that could be persistent in the unethical ways and how it would help devise ethical decisions. Further, it would be important to consider the commitment, consciousness, and competency which would be required as per the ethical decisions. Depending on the cost, it is important to constitute the right thing which is at the right commitment, having the set consciousness which can be applied as per the moral convictions as per the daily behavior along withholding it. Through the ethical act, it is the key awareness which can be enacted consistently. Competency is also defined as the ability to take on the alternatives, foresee potential consequences, and also integrating the risks, which would help to collect and evaluate information. Denuding on the decisions, often the business can be based on the cost-benefit analysis. It is important to follow the process and how it would benefit the decision minus the costs that can account for the cost-benefit analysis (CBA). 

Journal 2-: Response

In the journal entry shared by the “How community engagement strongly influence business”, I agree to most of the points shared and also think, how through the community engagement it has been an excellent strategy to relate with the strategy to  collaborate and identify it with the organization. It would also help the relationships that can further help in brand awareness and visibility. Due to community engagement it is important on how to collaborate and how to have the sustainable future, businesses that can help to develop in the competitive advantage by encouraging community engagement and how there have been collaborative initiatives or sponsoring community programs. Through community engagement, the focus has been on long-term commercial interests.  The main analysis is on community engagement and how it would be a collaboration of the key initiatives which would further help in adopting the key stretches and also developing the relationships which would help in identifying the well-being of the communities that have been at present or impacts. Further, the role of social responsibility has been to how to create a community engagement initiative and how it would have been effective ways to integrate ethics. Community involvement has not been the way how things can be and how it would further be helpful in the enduring benefits for all stakeholders.

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