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MGN442 Self-Leadership Literature Review: Application of GROW Model Assignment 1 Answer

MGN442 Assignment 1 Literature Review / Report

Task Description

For this assignment you will need to conduct a literature review where you critically analyse and synthesise theories/concepts/models from the broader self-leadership or positive psychology literature. After identifying a specific topic, it is helpful if you also choose a context to explore that you are also interested in knowing more about. By combining the topic and the context you will be able to create a question to investigate. You will need to have chosen at least 10 sources to read, analyse and integrate into the review of your question.

Length : 2,000 words (+/- 10%)

Weighting : 40%

Unit Learning Outcomes : 1 and 4

What is a literature review?

A literature review is a critical evaluation of previously published literature or research. Through organising, integrating, analysing and synthesising previous works, the author of the literature review/research report is able to consider the progress of the research towards clarifying a problem of interest. A literature review frequently defines and clarifies a research problem; summarises the current state of the research in a field; identifies relationships, contradictions, gaps and inconsistencies in the literature; and often suggests the next step towards solving the research problem.

Why is the literature review important?

The primary purpose of the literature review is to critique and analyse previous literature, analysing how and why previous research studies were conducted, and the conclusions that can be drawn from them. It is not usually sufficient to merely cite, chronologically, a number of studies and their relevant findings. The author must show academic scholarship by organising the literature in an interesting and useful way. The value of the literature review is established through the author’s ability to demonstrate a professional grasp on the research problem by summarising the background and current state of knowledge in the field. Thus the key elements of the literature review include: evaluating the contributions of others, highlighting research trends in the field, identifying areas of theoretical and empirical weakness in the previously published material, and to clarify the research problem or identify specific research questions to be addressed.

Literature Review Research Activities

Research and Gathering Information: Begin the literature review process by identifying the research problem or theme of interest. Secondly, working back from new to old, from general to specific, seek out relevant academic and literature regarding the theme or problem previously identified. After gathering, sifting through, and analysing the information on the topic, focus or narrow the problem and generate hypotheses or research questions for future study. In management disciplines there are usually three primary sources of academic literature: refereed journals and major texts in the field.

For this assignment you will need to have reviewed at least ten (10) sources.

Reading and Analysing Literature: To write the literature review you need to have read a number of articles to identify the facts? Who are the eminent scholars? What ideas, theories, questions, or hypotheses seem most important? When reading the literature, consider what developments, controversies or breakthroughs are currently being proposed by leading researchers/practitioners. What are the most commonly used research methodologies in the field? Is the methodology used the most appropriate or most useful? To assist with the analysis, some researchers build tables or charts of various studies to help systematically review research questions, methodologies, findings and limitations.

When reading the literature that you have gathered judge, evaluate and look critically at the research. The following questions are useful things to ask yourself about the literature you are reading. For example:

& Is the problem and theoretical basis clearly stated?

& Are the researchers aware of what others have done? (e.g., is the review complete?)

& Is the author telling a “story” that makes sense?

& What are the assumptions behind the research?

& Is the methodology, sample size etc., adequate?

& Are the results accurately presented?

& Is the research influential (e.g., has it sparked research interest by others)?

& Is the argument convincing?

& Are the generalisations justified based upon the evidence presented?

& Are suggestions offered for further research?

Writing the Literature Review

The shape of an article: Similar to an academic essay, the literature review takes an hourglass shape. The review begins with general statements and progressively narrows towards a specific area of inquiry, then broadens out again to more general conclusions. As you approach the end of the literature review it is recommended that you summarise gaps/contradictions/debates in the field by introducing your own suggestions or questions for future research.

Rationale or purpose: Begin the literature review broadly by generating a rationale or significance for reviewing the literature. Identify the importance of the inquiry by placing the problem or issue in context so that readers know why it is a significant field of investigation.

Critique and review of what is known and unknown about the topic: When reviewing previous work, it is important that you do not simply describe every study that has ever been done on the problem or issue. Rather you need to be selective, only cite articles that are pertinent to the specific issues with which you are dealing. Emphasise the major conclusions, findings, or relevant methodological issues of these studies and avoid unnecessary detail. As you progress through the review and the logic of the argument, offer suggestions for future research. For instance, do further studies need to be conducted with different populations, were flaws identified in previous methodologies, could the studies be extended or narrowed etc.?

Evaluate your literature review

  • Does it show thorough knowledge of the research, theory, concepts, ideology, and opinion?
  • Is the reader made aware that the review has been selective and are the criteria for selection and relevance explained?
  • Is there any critical assessment of the reviewed literature?
  • Does the review demonstrate a relationship between what others have previously done and the suggestions offered for future research or study?
  • Are transitions provided from one section to another?
  • Is there a final summary that clinches the need to do further study?

Conduct a self-assessment of your paper in ReView (see the Blackboard link)

  • The final step after submission of your paper is to conduct a ‘self-assessment’ of your writing using the Criterion Reference Assessment (CRA) through which your paper will be marked. Please go to ReView to conduct this




A leader always leads, and proper leadership inspires the followers, and they do their best. A leader himself decides how to train, how to prepare, how to show a path to followers. A leader forefronts all the evils too. Different leadership models are widespread across the globe, and leaders choose to implement. From academic houses to corporate houses, practical leadership skills help to encourage others. The GROW models are accessible in mentoring or leading. The GROW model holds the name with four principles. The goal or aim, the actuality or reality, obstacle or outcomes, way in the forward direction are the four basic principles which the GROW model stands for. A leader always needs to set his aims and goals because that helps himself to decide the path to the target. The goal should be measurable, achievable, having actuality and achieved in a particular period. Anything imaginary and unreal and chasing it is just wild goose chase and waste of time, energy and potential. The real goal setting motivates the leader to pursue it. And importantly, achieving a goal within a period brings success. A leader faces many obstacles and jumps over many hurdles to lead and to reach the goal. Leadership management and others must have personality traits of a leader that helps to overcome those smoothly. The model completes when the leader finally sets his will or reaches the goal. The leadership style of autocratic, the leadership style of democratic, laissez-faire leadership style and all other leadership styles have their characteristics, and the proper combination of GROW model and leadership style brings superiority.  Grow model diagram for coaching

Grow model diagram for coaching

Fig 1. (Source: SlideSalad – Premium and Free Professional PowerPoint Templates, 2020) 

Literature Review 

This paper focuses on leadership by converging the theoretical aspects and research on psychology and learning and gives conception about a teacher's guidance on growing individually and well as a reflective procedure. Student wellbeing has been concerned for recent years, and research is going on. The author suggests that teachers play a significant role in schools. In proper cultivation of discipline, culture develops among the students. As an academic leader, a teacher shows the path of advancement to the students. A good leader and his leadership policy set the wellbeing of the students in schools, and that helps them in self-improvement, and they start achieving. (Cherkowski, 2018) Positive organisational studies create positive vibes, and positive psychology brings positivity in the mindsets of the students. Thus the wellbeing and improvement of a student are defined. Development of the students' minds helps in setting goals, identifying obstacles and planning for the forward path, which eventually helps themselves in being future leaders.

It depicts that the mentoring process in leadership mentoring program and education level has an alternative approach as the GROW model. This research process researched about qualitative data obtained from a sample space of 33 communicators. For implementing a new model in the leadership training and coaching program, GROW model which was developed by John Whittemore was applied. The research outcome said that the GROW model could be used effectively. During the training of leadership, the data was collected from the sample space by asking them a predefined set of questions. The data was analysed using qualitative research methodology, and the result depicted that most of the communicators support and rely on the GROW model of leadership for the successful completion of the leadership training and mentoring program. (Nirwaty, 2016)

It focuses on the effect of a coaching style of leadership in different projects. How the project managers exercise the coaching leadership style is described and discussed in this article. A case study was chosen on an organisation who was applying coaching on the various projects undergoing. The research depicts a condition of the success of leadership style in coaching. The situation was a requirement of necessary skills and strengths in project managers which are self-management and practice of culture. This article also discusses how the two skills model helps in the successful implementation of leadership style in coaching. Some factors constrain the research.  The analysis of theoretical models and probing in-depth of the mental aspects would be more helpful. (Morten, 2016) The exercise of leadership skills in coaching needs to be improved and well implemented. The project managers must have productive personality traits to enhance leadership skills.

The new leadership practices are being developed, and leaders sometimes appear as learners, this paper says about it all. Learning, mentoring, coaching, counselling of the leaders helps to bring change in their professional behaviour and enhance the leadership skills. It is a challenging and rigorous task to build a complete professional leadership programme which will make the difference between the leader's approach to professional behaviours. This article also says that development and learning of leadership can be implemented by studying about the leader's nature of leadership roles and professional practices. The study reveals that coaching in a group, studying theoretical aspects, adoption of new skills of leadership helps the leaders to develop themselves, build self-confidence, brings motivation, enhance cognitive and intuitive abilities. (Marit, 2016) So the development of the leaders is necessary, and transformation of leaders to learner helps them to learn the new aspects of leadership skills and implement it effectively.

This article sheds lights on the value-based leadership practices and the development of leadership skills vertically. This article practises the argument on the implementation of vertical development theory of adults which contradicts the practice of traditional leadership development theory to make the leaders face complex, unstable, ambivalent situations. Fifteen large organisations have implemented the vertical development program of leadership, and they are excelling in their way. The mindset of leadership in the development and the learning and mentoring strategy of the organisation is the primary factor. There are some secondary factors like the understanding of risk, engagement of the executives, openness and commitment of the officials existing. (Hannah et al., 2020) This research discussed the vertical theory of development and how it expedites the process of leadership skill development among the leaders. As many organisations are following it and seeing the success, it is being supported by the other organisations too.

This paper discusses the question of time to regrow the GROW model. Coaching and mentoring is a lengthy process and proper design of the structure of the coaching design model is very necessary to flow the process smoothly. The structure of the coaching and sessions is an integral part of an individual's coaching methodology. This article explored the different issues and frameworks of the coaching model. For the proper understanding of the grow model, a well-structured session of coaching is essential. An instructor needs a structure and detailed planning of the mentoring programme to expedite the process.  The GROW model is sometimes misinterpreted by many, and thus a reformation of the GROW model is needed. That is why the regrowing of the GROW model is necessary. (Anthony, 2018)

This article criticises and reviews Sir John Whittemore’s theory of coaching for performance. The W in GROW should be what, whom or why. According to the GROW model of leadership, the four principles are goal, reality or actuality, obstacles and way in forwarding direction or will. The author here made criticism and asked about the Was what, why, whom. This is what it needs to review. (Mohapatra, 2016) The proper implementation is not only about defining the will or the way in the forward direction. Why the GROW model is and why its application is necessary, the article says it all.

This article discusses the application of CREAM strategy in mentoring and teaching practices. Monitoring the tutors and staff needs concern, not only let them, coach. Cottrell’s CREAM theory sheds light on this discussion("ERIC - Education Resources Information Center", 2020). The CREAM strategy, which consists of five principles of creative, reflective, productive, active and motivated, is applied to the coaches and tutors for structuring the session of coaching. This helps in the betterment of the performance of the coaches and individuals. For the assessment of the achievements and making observations, the CREAM strategy was found as a useful tool. A coach needs to be creative to deliver better lessons. The coaching process should be reflective. (Milad, 2017)  A coach needs to implement practical principles. The individual needs to stay motivated during the sessions of coaching to make the GROW model successful.

This article discusses how better is the GROW model in mentoring and coaching and how it can be implemented to bring positive changes in coaching practices. The four principles of the GROW model should be discussed in an elucidated way so that everyone gets to understand it. The GROW model is beneficial as it was implemented in many places, and it was found to be successful. So the GROW model is being followed by many coaches and leaders to mentor and coach. When there is a goal, it helps to walk in a specific direction. And the reality of the target makes the path smooth. There are many options available, or many obstacles are ready to block the way of advancement of the individuals. (Baker, 2018) This model says about how to stay motivated and surpass all the ills to reach the goal.

The perspective of coaching in a group for learning about leadership principles is discussed in this article. Studying in a group brings a better result. Similarly coaching in a group also brings better results. When there is a group, there is an exchange of mindsets, principles, values and ethics. The learning capability is different from person to person. Everyone has a different view of any model or strategy and sometimes brings conflict during a conversation with others. This helps in the exchange of opinions. Individual's mindset is different. Coaching in a group helps everyone to be familiar with everyone's point of views and thus making the learning process more effective in individual coaching that does not come. This process enhances the learning ability of future leaders by bringing competition among them, and it also helps them to stay motivated.  (Fluckiger et al., 2017)Stages of the Grow model

Stages of the Grow model

Fig 2 (Source: Leadership and Management Training -, 2020)


The GROW model has appeared as a useful tool, and it is applied in many fields. With the advancement of time and technology, it is seen that a true leader defines the way to success. So the importance of attaining leadership skills is becoming popular day by day. In the articles of research scholars, it is observed how vital leadership skill is. In academics, a student's path to success is defined by the tutors. The proper leadership skills of the tutors make the students stay focused and disciplined in their way of learning. As the students are the future leaders, the excellent leadership skills of the teachers develop the leadership ability among the students. In business houses, true leaders show and construct business policies and planning. The better the leadership skills of the leaders, the more height the organisations reach. Researchers are exploring the new methods of leadership, new skills to enhance their skills. The practices of leadership skills are becoming popular eventually. New models are coming to light, and that sometimes conflicts with the traditional methods. But the coexistence of the old ones and new ones with some compromise helps. Young entrepreneurs and leaders are bringing success to their organisations, and they possess excellent leadership skills. If the leader fails to make the path, show the path to success, motivate the followers, handle all kinds of obstacles and take necessary actions according to the situations, the organisation downfalls.  

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