Linux Operating System And Open Source Software Workbook Assignment 6 Questions Answers
Further Investigation Questions
1. Flavours of Linux
a. Choose three different Linux distributions. Give an overview of the intended purpose of each and explain how they compare to each other. Examples include: Mint, Kali, MX, Ubuntu, Fedora, Debian, etc.
Answer – here are the three distributions of Linux –
- Fedora – it is an innovative open source OS which is mainly developed for developers. It is capable to work on different type of hardware, cloud platforms and containers. Fedora has a large set of tools to help a software developer in many kinds. Fedora comes in many different versions such as fedora server, fedora IoT and fedora workstation which have different purpose ("Get Fedora", 2020).
- Ubuntu – it is another open sources OS which comes with almost everything, application, that needed by an organisation. The application comes with ubuntu include office suite, web browser, media, emails, etc. pre-installed in it. Ubuntu has a virus protection application and a build-in firewall. It can also support of up to 50 languages so that a large user community can use it. It is also known as most protected OS that support security updates and patches of up to five years ("Ubuntu PC operating system | Ubuntu", 2020).
- Kali – this distribution of Linux is majorly used in penetration testing and forensic investigations. Kali has so many pen testing and forensic tools built-in which helps a user in doing those tasks. It comes in both 32-bit and 64-bit versions and can support different types of hardware platform. This OS is one of the most secured OSs that use defensive security through offensive mind. It is also funded by many peoples to be developed as a penetration testing platform (2020).
Comparison – all the three distributions of Linux operating system discussed above have user specific features and usages. Fedora is majorly used by software developers because of its feature prove environment suitable for developers. While ubuntu is a server and client-based operating system, which is mainly used to run server role by installing server services to server different types of client OSs include windows, Linux or Mac. Ubuntu is far mor popular just because of its large set of applications supported by it. Kali is the operating system which is mostly used by a pen tester, hacker and forensic investigator. Because it has so many tools and applications that are used in forensic investigation and penetration testing of an application like web application or any other.
2. Open source software
a) Why might an open source application be preferable to a closed source one?
Answer – open source software applications are always free to use by everyone and always available to download over internet. While the closed source applications or also called as proprietary software applications are not give access to public of their source code. A user can download source code of an open source application and change or modify its functionality and feature to whatever he wants that is not possible with closed source applications. Any organisation or individual can read and change the code to the desired one to meet their demands. The open source application is also found more secure than closed source because the user, who modify it can implement as much security as they want and only, he has the code to implement and destroy that security. While using closed source software applications, we need to purchase a valid license of use as the owner or programmer did not want to modify it. There is no doubt that these software applications are more tested and featureful but a skilled developer can add required features and security in open sources applications also. This the main reason so that open source applications are preferred to use than a closed source application (Byfield, 2020).
b) How do companies make money from open source software?
Answer – using an open source software application is the primary need for most of the start up organisation of small to large size and even also individuals. Because they do not need to pay for a license and have a source code of that application to modify it according their need. This approach gives a way to the company for long term sustainability of their business by using that software. The open source software companies are making money in this way, once they have a good user community and brand value. With a longer running application, multiple software editions are there that are provided for free. After some time, their support will be removed with no guarantee and warrantee. They also make money from donations from large organisations and individual developers. The companies also charge sometimes for any support service that is only provided to their community based on paid subscription. When an open sources software application will become popular, more companies will demand it and can pay to modify it for them. This way, the software and the company will become a brand value and can make large amount of money from market and capture good market share also ("How do Open Source Companies, Programmers make money?", 2020).