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ITNE3013 Study of Applications that Use Cryptography and Their Algorithms Assessment Answer

ITNE3013 Advanced Network and Infrastructure Security


Learning Outcome

LO 1 Describe the principles of systems and network security and apply them to evaluate risks, threats and the goals of information security.

LO 5 Analyse various controls and evaluate their effectiveness for information security in an enterprise.

LO 6 Evaluate the effectiveness (both in terms of performance and limitations) of individual control techniques in network and information security.

LO Critically evaluate the risk against controls and implement enterprise security policies.

Project description:

The assignment requires you to work individually and write a research paper pertaining to advanced network and information security. Here is a list of research topics that you may consider for writing the research paper.

  • Steganography
  • Biometric Encryption
  • Blockchain Technology
  • IDS, Firewall
  • Web Security
  • Wireless Security
  • Cloud Security
  • Public Key Encryption and RSA
  • Digital Signature
  • Risk Analysis and management

You need to get an approval from your Lecturer by Week 5 for the are you intend to work on.


  • Your submission must be in PDF file format.
  • Each assignment should be completed individually.
  • Your submission must be not more than 4 pages.



This paper presents research about public-key cryptography and RSA. This paper will discuss various applications that use cryptography and their algorithms. This paper will represent the various security issue and risk in information security and provide the various control techniques like PKC and evaluate the effectiveness of the method. Finally, we will discuss the various strengths and disadvantages of the proposed method and technique. RSA is the best algorithm that provides the secure communication.  This paper will also point out some innovations regarding the PKE field. We present some methods for improving the shortcoming of the PKE.


Security is important to the data. Data security is related to prevent the data from unauthorised activity with the help of digital measures. Cryptography is a technique to secure the data. Kryptos is a Greek word, which means hidden. Cryptography is divided into 2 categories private key and public key. There are lots of applications are available that use cryptography technique to secure their data. They use many other cryptography techniques like hash functions, digital signature and various other algorithms. RSA is the most widely used algorithm for digital signatures.  It stands for Rivest, Shamir and Adleman. The modern cryptography techniques provide better security compare to the ancient one. This paper will focus on public-key algorithms and RSA. Research methods. Public key encryption removes the problem of key distribution. Another main benefit is better security. The weakness of this method is only speed. There are other many encryptions methods are available which are faster than the public key encryption. We will discuss some future development in the end regarding this area.

Public key encryption can be called public-key cryptography. It is used for encrypting data with the help of 2 different keys. It is also known as asymmetric encryption. In the process of encryption, an encrypted message is sent to the receiver with the help of internet. That encrypted message cannot be read by any other user. At the receiver side, it is again decrypted into the original message. It creates two keys public and private. The encrypted message is decoded with the help of public key and it can only be decrypted by the matching private key. RSA is a pack of cryptographic algorithms used to provide specific services. It has become the most widely used algorithm in the IT security field. RSA algorithm is asymmetric cryptography algorithm. In the RSA algorithm, both keys can encrypt the message it also provides the integrity and authenticity to the data storage. RSA mostly used with the other encryption methods for providing better security to the data.

We use cryptography in our daily life. The very important application of cryptography is the digital signature. A digital signature is a method for verifying the authenticity of the digital messages. It confirms that the information has not modified and received in the current form. Encryption is used in electronic money. In electronic money, encryption is used to secure the transaction data and transaction amount. Encryption can provide confidentiality while using a credit card for authorization.

Between the TCP/IP and the application protocols, SSL is used for providing data security. SSL supports data encryption and message integrity. SSL uses the RSA algorithm for the process of authorization. There are some other applications in our daily life where encryption is used. Some of them are time stamping, Kerberos, remailers and disk encryption.  [1]

Threats and risk to information security

In today's world data is a very crucial part for every business. Cybercriminals are discovering new ideas to attack you. Protecting business is becoming a challenge in the field of information security. Some of them are phishing, cryptocurrency, ransomware, IoT attack, social engineering, cyber-physical attack etc. in phishing digital messages are sent to the victim and when victim click on the affected link attackers steal all the sensitive data. Such an attacker can steal login, password and financial information. In ransomware, the attacker uses the latest technology and kidnap an individual or company sensitive data. The company should focus on the strong defence system against breaches. Cyptojacking is a new way to earn money. Cybercriminals hijack the system or wok computer for miming process for cryptocurrency. Mining required a huge amount of CPP that’s why hacker makes money by hijacking system. IoT attacks are becoming a common method for hacking. IoT devices include all the devices like laptops, tablets, webcams, smartwatches, medical devices, automobile and various home security devices. With the increasing number of medical devices in the hospital, the data of patience will be at risk. Due to human psychology with the use of a variety of media, these attackers can fool people and they access their sensitive data [2]. 

These types of attacks, software, vulnerability, malware and various issue are the second issues to the organization. Some methods can be used to prevent thread and risk are access control, application security, email security, cloud security, anti-malware security, firewall, IPS, SIEM, VPN and wireless security. 

Pretty good privacy is a freeware created to provide the encryption and authentication for the various applications like email and data storage. Many cloud service provider uses the public key cryptography for the authentication process. Google G Suite is the example of cloud-based service. SSL certificate is used for protecting the user sensitive data. Google has increased the SSL certificate length from 1024 to 2048 bits. RSA SecureID is a technology used in a high-security environment [3].

To protect the cybersecurity and to meet the growing demand of public-key encryption some proposed a single bit public-key encryption scheme based on a variety of learning parity with noise. Based on LPN variant problem some proposed a single but and multi-bit public-key encryption techniques. Creation of LPN instance is very simple as compared to the DLPN problem. Here is the comparison with damgard’s scheme and RSA scheme [4].Threats and risk to information security

Figure 1 comparison

The implementation is written in c plus plus. With the use of the NTL library. You can see that the encryption is slow but the description is fast as compared to the RSA. In the future, they will design the DLPN public key scheme with high security [4].

Several papers have studied about the small CRT-exponent RSA using Coppersmith’s lattice-based method. There were some issue and some improvement have been made. Bleichenbacher and May (PKC’06) and Jochemsz and May (Crypto’07) have proposed two attacks but there was no improvement after that. In this study, they have created a novel lattice construction. It helps them to exploit more algebraic structures of the CRT-RSA key generation equation [5].

comparison between theorem 1 and BM06

Figure 2

They have implemented the experiment on the Magma 2.11 computer algebra system. The experimental results are very good than theoretical analysis. They have proposed an attack which works for p<N0.5 and dq<N0.122 [5].To overcome the challenges in the cloud security some researchers have proposed some idea with the use of the RSA algorithm. Cloud computing is used to share the resources with the help of internet. There are lots of benefits to cloud computing. Data security is very important in the cloud environment. Diagram for the proposed model

Figure 3

Diagram for the proposed model

In this proposed model the scheme of encryption is based on the RSA algorithm. The small prime number and using prime that is very close these are the two limitations. To overcome, this issue new method is proposed. The RSA algorithm will be implemented by the LCS logic. They have mentioned some steps for encrypting and decrypting the data. In the proposed system the attacker can’t access the data due to the RSA algorithm. This algorithm is very suitable for the transmitting string of text. The proposed model can provide a better approach for the other models.[6]

After analysing all the research and study we have found some advantages and disadvantages of RSA public-key encryption: RSA algorithm is very safe and very secure to its users. It is the most widely used algorithm. RSA algorithm is very difficult to break. It is difficult due to its computational factor. Performing the reverse function is very difficult. It uses the public key encryption method.  It uses the 2 key for performing the encryption and decryption functions which is easy as compared to the private key. In RSA it required more computing when dealing with the mobile platform. In some cases, the processing speed can be slow due to the encryption of large data. It is also depended on the complicated mathematics so the system can be slow. Many Public key systems use the third party to clarify the reliability f the keys. So the RSA algorithm and data can be compromised.public key cryptography

Figure 4

The analysis is based on the performance of the previous researchers and their study. The public key can be further classified into many algorithms. This diagram shows the classification of PKC algorithms [7].

Picture 5 shows the roadmap of all the researches done based on the different algorithms. You can the improvement in the search of public-key cryptography in the last few years. 

 roadmap of researches

Figure 5

In the last decade, the most chosen algorithm as integer factorization and lattices algorithm. It provides very high security and computational time. 

There are some challenges regarding public-key cryptography. Speed is the most common challenge with PKC. Many other cryptography methods are faster than the PKC. We may combine the PKC with the private key system to provide the security and the speed. Another challenge is related to the certification authority. Cybercriminal can get the public key certificate from the compromised authority. These are some challenges in the field of PKC. Despite all these public-key cryptography and RSA is the most secure protocol. In this protocol user no need to transfer the key with another user. PKC also provide the feature of digital signatures that could not be disclaimed. Public key cryptography can’t take place of private key cryptography. Public key encryption depends on your choice and the environment. In the multiuser environment, it is necessary to ensure confidentiality with the help of digital signature and authorization. Due to the higher security and scalability, it is highly popular as compared to private key encryption [8]. With the RSA algorithm, it is quite difficult to break the security. It is most commonly used for the password, banking, online shopping and television.


RSA is the most commonly used algorithm. It has some limitation but that can be removed for the best performance and the research in future. In this paper we have included the study of lattice-based cryptanalysis of the small CRT-exponent RSA, single bit public-key encryption scheme based on a variety of learning parity with noise, Secure the Cloud Data Transmission using an Improved RSA Algorithm. In this paper, we have discussed the development of public-key cryptography for the last 4 decades. In the last 10 years, the research in this area is increased very rapidly. In this paper, we have discussed various PKC algorithms based on research and study. In this paper, the strength and weaknesses of the RSA public-key encryption are also discussed. We hope that this improvement and construction can lead to a better result.

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