My Assignment Help

Identifying Social Determinants of Smoking: Chronic Respiratory Diseases Assessment Answer

Assignment details Discussion Paper:

Explore the reasons why some people continue to smoke despite having a chronic respiratory disease. What social determinants of health will be affecting these decisions? Explain your response.

Critically discuss the above question in light of your learning from this topic. Ensure all arguments and opinions are supported by relevant literature. This assignment is all about social determinants of health and discussion with 2000 words.


Explore the reasons why some people continue to smoke despite having a chronic respiratory disease. What social determinants of health will be affecting these decisions? 


The purpose of the essay is to focus on some people who continue to smoke despite having a chronic respiratory disease and identifying the social determinants causes of it. Smoking is identified as the main risk factor which has caused an impact on the 50% of smokers develops  chronic disease and how the disease has proved to be life threatening. The problem of smoking can also be due to the lack of smoking cessations motivation and how it can cause irreversible damage to the long term respiratory health.. The habit of smoking is often due to the socio cultural lifestyles, that leads to the detrimental impacts to cease smoking  (Bryony, 2019).  As identified how social determinants of health (SDH) can cause the chronic health ailments and they are the one of the reasons due to which the problem of the smoking cessation can even be limited. As per the WHO, for the smokers, the main factors  are the social determinants of the health that can lead to continuous long term smoking problems. In order to overcome the problem, the same socio-cultural factors can play a vital role to control the problem and  can cause people to collaborate, grow and work together to adopt a healthy lifestyle and enforce a system that can shape up our conditions to avoid such habit in an individual daily life. 

Theoretical Perspective

It is important to identify, how the Theory of the planned behavior can help to determine the psychosocial determinants which can  explain the chronic obligation to continue smoking and it would be one of the psychosocial determinants that can explain how the smoker begins its problems and how to avoid such problems.  The patient with the chronic disease, continue to smoke, as it is a habit and it would be difficult to leave the perpetual habit, due to the factors of the number of the social determinants (Evén, 2019). It is due to the variety of social cognitive models and it has been predominantly known as the most influential theories that can identify how there can be the predicting smoking behavior and how the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) can also be one of the reasons, that can cause the smoking behavior antecedents and how it would be a theory-based understand the programs and the psychology to continue the smoking habits. As social determinant plays a vital role in influencing the number of studies that can create a definite model and even help to identify the model due to the smoke (Hedqvist, 2019). The theory of planned behavior examines, that due to the continuous habit, influential factors, social environment, it can lead to the perpetual habit of continue smoking. Even after trying to leave or overcome the problem, social determinants play a vital in influencing and making it continue the problem (Caspar, 2019). As per the theory of the reasoned actions, often the Social influences and personal factors, play a vital role in continuing its habit. The individual can experience the intention; face the persistent attitude and also have to experience the subjective norm (SN); which would lead to the perceived behavioral control (PBC).  Subsequently, it is important to identify how people can focus on the subjective norms that can be conceptualized. Secondly, it would be as per the people’s positive or negative evaluations that can lead to the predictor of intention (attitudes). Third, it is also one of the evaluations that can be based on the ease or difficulty of adopting the behavior and how it can reflect the obstacles which would be based on past behavioral performances. Subsequently, there can be attitudes, SN, and PBC which can also influence and create pressure to continue smoking or quit smoking, depending on the personal choices that can help to influence in particular (Hughes, 2019).

Social Determinant Factors

As per the social determinant factor, it is important to understand how the varies, which can continue to affect the chronic disease can still impact in any circumstances. As per the social determinant of health, it can be due to the prolong social practices along with the conditions (which are the lifestyles, living and also exhibiting the situations, neighborhood characteristics along with the poverty, environmental pollution, etc.);, Similarly, the social-economic factors can be accounted as the income, education, and occupation and it would be accounted to the stressful circumstances along with experiencing the racial discrimination, and it would be accounted to the economic (e.g., unemployment, business recessions) and it would involve the political (e.g., government policies, includes the programs, along with the public insurance benefits), along with handling the religious (which includes the piety, prescriptions that can work against the smoking and drinking) factors and it can be effective for the health of individuals and it. It would include consisting of groups, and a community that would work in a positive or negative framework (Glasgow, 2019). As per the social determinants, it is important to focus on fostering illness and disability which would be helpful to relate and aloud work in terms of preventing disease and even maintaining health.

Social determinants are not only influential in the infectious outbreak of the disease, but it can also cause the spread of chronic diseases, which includes cardiovascular disease, and other related ailments. As per the social context of a person’s life it is important to evaluate how and why can be the risk of exposure can cause the problem and also cause the degree of susceptibility, and it is the prime reason that can cause a further infectious, genetic, and it would lead to the metabolic, malignant, or degenerative (Kim, 2019).

Social factors can cause a direct cause that would lead to chronic diseases. For example, smoking is one of the diseases which can cause the health-related behavior, and it would lead to 21 chronic diseases, such as the least 12 types of cancer, that would cause the six types and it can also cause the cardiovascular disease, diabetes, along with the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,  and depending on pneumonia which would cause substantial influenza, Another factor is the biological such as high contiguous cancer and further would cause the impairs blood circulation and eventually can affect the health problems (Lee, 2019). Due to smoking cigarettes, it can further cause the problem of the socially facing the restriction.

As per the framework of the problem of the social factors which can cause the problem of the health income, accumulated wealth, can also lead to the education, occupational characteristics and even lead to the social inequality that can further cause the race and ethnic group. It is also how there can be direct effects that can be observed as unhealthy and healthy lifestyles. Similar, it has been seen how the high- or low-risk health behavior, can also cause the problem of the living conditions and how it can cause the problem of the food security, levels of stresses and strains and how there can be social disadvantages that can result in the life course, environmental factors and even can result to chronic diseases (Morton, 2019).

Psychological perspectives of health for future practice 

The psychological perspective, of the smoking cessation, is observed is by making the individuals realize the long term complications faced due to the smoking such s the cardiovascular disease, cancer and also facing the long term deaths (Norton, 2019). The government often labels the 75% of the image to be printed on the smoking box and also prints the strong labels such as “Smoking kills”, nut he individuals have a negative impact due to this. The psychological perspective is also to tax, fine, and penalize, by the individuals become indifferent and there seem to be no changes in the respiratory diseases (Rosengren, 2019). As observed the individuals who could continuously benefit and even have to overcome the problem of smoking, has to take the strong steps to cess smoking and even have to opt for the psychological therapies and go into the rehabilitation centers. Bu leaving the cigarettes and even understanding the repercussion from a long term perspective, the individuals might still be keen to continue and there can be a minimum or a no impact due to the warnings, alerts, and several factors (Brown, 2019). The long term consequences of smoking can be seen as the negative influence or the low determining impacts. The psychological factors such as the families and the care for loved ones can also be seen as a limited influence in the smoker’s life. The strong reasoning and rationing of the thoughts are required to overcome the problem of smoking. Another factor is to identify how to educate about smoking and the necessary factors at a lower age such as the 12-13 years and making them understand what can be consequences of smoking from the long term (Scerri 2019).

It was observed, even after the criticality of the situation, the smokers were able to accept the repercussions, and even after understanding the multiple reasons, they continue to smoke and there was no scope of the cessation. Motivation and support are some of the psychological factors that can help smokers to quit smoking (White-Williams, 2019). It was also obvious as to how the decision to continue smoking or not, even after knowing that it is a prime reason for the chronic disease, still the autonomy of the decisions and the choice to continue or not should be supported with the choice of information and the support.

Strategies for improved population health care in relation

Smoking can cause the determinant impact and nicotine dependency can even cause the problem of strong addiction and smoking. Some of the strategies are to overcome the smoking problem and prevent chronic disease is the 

Education and awards

Education and awareness campaigning can cause some of the positive effects on smokers to quit continuing their habit (Caspar, 2019). Through consistent knowledge and the information, it can also help to prevent stopping the problem of smoking and even help in controlling the problem to some extent. Smokers that would work in terms of social pattern which can have a random, individual decision and the prime causes social influences. It would be approximately socially disadvantaged can express poor health habits like smoking that would social situations that would behavior. The understanding of the smoking patterns can also be reviewed as the prime factor that can cause the social situations which would perpetually cause the socioeconomic factors which would work inters of the cessation (e.g., debt, stress, unemployment) (Lester, 2019).

Changes in the lifestyles

Through the changes in lifestyles, such as exercising, adopting good healthy lifestyles can generate an enigma and motivation to leave smoking (Evén et al, 2019). The people within society to face the problem of the higher and middle levels of society and it would forth cause the problem of the social ladder. Individuals within the socioeconomic groups can help to understand what can be one of the reasons for the social classes and how it can lead to publicity about the harmful effects but still, even after the education and all, the problem of the smoking continues.

Family and Loved ones-:

By leaving the social group which continues to smoke and also through the collaboration and the supportive care of the families and the loved ones, it would be helpful to overcome the smoking problem (Hedqvist, 2019). The psychological factors such as the families and the care for loved ones can also be seen as a limited influence in the smoker’s life. The strong reasoning and rationing of the thoughts are required to overcome the problem of smoking.


To conclude, as per the WHO the prime reason of the cigarette use, even after being aware of the chronic disease are the SDH reasons such as the social factors, cultural influences and also due to the socio-environmental reasons. The influence of the social work in collaboration to controlling the problem can be based on the how the social behavior can help to understand influences and the factors that  can work to overcome the problem. As observed from the various researched literature, that Chronic Disease (COPD) is often referred to as the wide chronic lung diseases and it can be a common cause due to the most suffering and also experiencing mortality globally. Often the problem of the chronic disease has become a regular problem and it has become the third leading cause of death shortly Smoking can be one of the main reasons, due to which the chronic ailments can happen. Due to the smoking cessation and the prime problems to improve prognosis can happen. 

Customer Testimonials