Emergence of Vaccine Assessment Answer
EMERGENCE OF VACCINE
A vaccine is known as the suspension of killed, fragmented, or weakened micro-organisms, antibodies, toxins, or lymphocytes that are directed to prevent disease. It is the role of the vaccine to confer immunity against harmful agents by making the immune system active to attack the agent. The antibody-producing cells that are stimulated by the vaccine, also known as the B cells get sensitised to react to the agent if it tries to enter the human body. (Brunson, 2020) Necessarily does the vaccine confer active immunity, preferably at times it can confer passive immunity by providing the antibodies created by a human donor. The most used method of vaccine is through injection, but in some cases, it can also be consumed orally or through nasal in cases like the flu vaccine. Immunisation through vaccination is the best discovery of microbiology. The way the vaccine has emerged and impacted science in today's world since the first time it was discovered is praiseworthy. Immunisation is an ideal way to keep oneself and the family protected from infectious diseases. (BetterHealth, 2019) With the help of vaccination, it is possible to eradicate the spread of the virus in the present and also in the future. The spread of diseases not just stays within the family but can spread to the people at a large mass and therefore, in simpler words, immunisation can save lives.
Emergence of Vaccine
If we talk about history of Vaccine, the entire practice of immunisation started hundreds of years ago when the Buddhist monks tried to confer immunity to snakebite by drinking snake venom. This practice dates back to the 17th century in China when variolation with cowpox was a way to grant immunity to smallpox as well. However, the first person who was considered to have founded vaccinology was Edward Jenner from the West in 1796. He gave a 13-year-old cowpox vaccine also and conferred immunity to smallpox. Later in the year 1798, the first smallpox vaccine was introduced. Gradually over the years, in the 18th and 19th centuries, with the proper mass implementation of the smallpox immunisation, the global eradication was possible in the year 1979. Over the past two decades, molecular genetics gained popularity in microbiology and in genomics that involved vaccinology. Its application in this field proved to be a great success with the advancement of the hepatitis B vaccines, seasonal influenza vaccine manufacture, and reactogenic acellular pertussis vaccine. It led to the development of other vaccine delivery systems such as the viral vectors, DNA vaccines, topical formulations, and plant vaccines, along with the development of better tuberculosis vaccines, herpes simplex virus, HIV, pandemic influenza and much more. Some of the other kinds of vaccines, such as the therapeutic vaccines for autoimmune diseases, allergies, and addictions, would soon become popular too. ("A brief history of vaccination", 2020)
The development of the new vaccines cannot begin without ascertaining the nature of the infection that needs to be prevented. It is mandatory to research well and study the nature of the virus or the bacteria that leads to the infection. Without accurate information about the structure of the virus, it would be inappropriate and challenging to develop a vaccine that could fight the bug. (Finnegan, 2012) The primary stages involved in the development of new vaccines start with the exploratory phase, where most of the research is done related to the vaccine and the need for it. The second stage is the pre-clinical stage, where researchers use the method of cell culture systems or tissue culture to check whether the vaccine is capable of producing immunity or not. ("Producing Prevention: The Complex Development of Vaccines", 2019) This stage is followed by the clinical development stage, which further is divided into a three-phase process. In phase I, several people get a trial vaccine and, in Phase II, the clinical study is done on specific groups of people who fit the age group and the physical health similar to the base of who the new vaccine is made. Later in Phase III, the study is expanded by giving the vaccine to around thousands of people to ascertain the safety of the vaccine and also its efficiency. (CDC, 2020) A lot of times, there is a Phase IV conducted for further studies related to the approval and licensing of the vaccine. The next stage is the regulatory review and approval stage when the protocol of regulatory rules is analysed and approved, followed by the manufacturing of the vaccines for mass consumption. The last step is the quality control stage, where a good quality check is done before the vaccines are distributed all around the world.
Vaccination is the response to the emergence of a pandemic illness that can arise in the future. It is designed to react and control a pandemic situation where quarantine, treatment of the disease, surveillance, and other necessary measures are taken to prevent the spread of the virus from protecting lives. (“Vaccines for Pandemic Threats | History of Vaccines", 2018) There is a scarce situation like the present outbreak of the coronavirus where it is the need of the hour to get hold of a vaccine that can control the death rate. A pandemic situation is considered to be a situation where it affects people across the globe. Coronavirus has created a havoc situation by expanding to cover every part of the world, and yet no vaccine is proven to cure the deadly virus, also known as the COVID-19. Researchers are working to create a new vaccine and experimenting with the existing vaccine that was used to cure the outbreak of Sars and Mars a few decades ago. The reason why the coronavirus vaccine is essential is that it is the only way to cure the affected people and stop the virus from spreading by immunisation of the world population with it. The other way is which people everywhere are thriving and protecting themselves is through various other measures such as quarantine and social distancing. (Gallagher, 2020) The coronavirus vaccine is the current need of the hour, and it can be said that vaccination at such a stage is a matter is very crucial. The emergence of vaccination and the theories revolving around it can be questionable at such a stage where worldwide every researcher is trying to find the solution to cure this deadly virus. Coronavirus has impacted today's world, and therefore it can be said that the discovery of vaccination is significant to save lives.
Vaccination has emerged strongly and is an important part of microbiology to ensure there is no rise or spread of the virus. The vaccine technology has seen an advancement in the production of vaccines against deadly viruses. There is always a challenge that the developing countries face in terms of its vulnerability to the virus outbreak. According to the World Health Organization or WHO, statistics say that 40% of the deaths occur worldwide due to diseases. ("What does the future hold for vaccination? | Australian Academy of Science", 2020) The only way to overcome this is by extending the usage of the vaccines that are already in use along with the generation of new vaccines and researching new technologies that can meet the requirements. The future of vaccines lies in the fact that the existing vaccines will never go out of implementation. It should always be better off if it is used in various ways to ensure the body is immune to the vaccine. The method of using the existing vaccines should be well researched by the researchers and how it can be used in the best possible ways to fit into all kinds of age groups.
With the emergence of vaccination, it has been a blessing for our society to fight against the deadly virus and bacteria, which could be a severe threat to the wellbeing of a person and the community at large. Its growing success rate has led to a decrease in communicable diseases. With the evolvement of vaccination, it can cater to larger age groups starting right from the infants to the elderly, the privileged as well as the underprivileged countries. The technological advancement of microbiology has led to the improvement of how vaccines are curing people and leading to an improved quality of a healthy life.