COU101 Counselling Theories and Its Practical Application In Given Case Study Assessment 4 Answer
Statement of purpose
The purpose of this paper is to discuss two theories in regard to one case study and application of theories to assist in the chosen case. Tom’s case (case study 2) study has been chosen with two theories that are-person centred and family system therapy.
The paper will focus on the counselling theories and its practical application on the clients in the context of the given case studies. Therefore, case study 2 has been chosen where a 25 years old man named Tom is facing behavioural issues after the sudden death of his father. In order to resolve the issue of Tom, Person-centred therapy and family systems therapy will be used. The work will analyse two theories with their evolution and origin and elements of the theories. Further, the focus will be made on the application of theories to the client's case and finding the best solution out of it for Tom. After doing this, the best theory will be suggested among the two selected theories.
1. The historical origins and evolution of the chosen theories
Majorly, person-centred therapy is known as client-centred counselling also. As mentioned by Bazzano, (2016), person-centred therapy is actually a humanistic approach which enables an individual to perceive himself continuously and, in this approach, the interpretation of counsellor is very less. The major goals of person-centred therapy can be defined in three ways. They are to facilitate the personal growth of an individual, to eliminate the distress and to develop self-esteem. Originally the therapy was developed by psychotherapist Carl Rogers at the beginning of 1940s, and it was extended up to 1980s (Joseph, 2019). In 1957, Carl Rogers depicted six necessary conditions for which person-centred therapy can be applied. These conditions are therapist, client incongruence, genuineness of therapist, unconditional positive regard of therapist, empathetic understanding and client perception. However, in order to treat depression, anxiety, relationship issues, sexuality issues, and angriness, this therapy is widely used.
Family systems therapy:
On the other hand, Family system therapy is another type of psychotherapy which is massively used to treat mental patients. As per the view of Negash& Morgan, (2016), Family system therapy is to resolve the issues or mental conflicts with the support of family members in a functional and healthy way. In most of the behavioural cases, it has been observed that family therapy is very much effective. Counsellors involve family members to resolve the issues of the patients. In the 19th century, Family system therapy was introduced and developed in the area of professional practice majorly within the western culture in the countries of the US and UK. In the 1960s, family systems therapy was used by psychotherapist Murray Bowen through research on family patterns of schizophrenia people (Palombi, 2016). The major goals of family system therapy are to develop communication between family members, to enable the patients to handle family situations and others.
2. Details of counsellor/client relationship and other elements of the chosen theories
Elements of Person-centred therapy:
In person-centred therapy, counsellors are congruent with the clients. The counsellors provide unconditional positive regard in person-centred therapy and also the counsellor shows an empathetic understanding to the patient. Basically, in person-centred therapy, the counsellor interprets very less. Thus, the major elements of person-centred therapy are congruence, unconditional positive regard and empathy, which are known as core conditions. Congruence practice is the handling of the situation of patients without hiding the professional identification as to maintain transparency. Unconditional positive regard enables the counsellors to be non- judgemental. In the view of Wood, (2019) Unconditional positive regard is the basic acceptance of a patient's situation by the counsellors and supports the person's opinion. The last element is empathy in which counsellors interacts with the patients and states their desires to appreciate the perspectives of the patients.
Elements of Family systems therapy:
The counsellors involve the family members of the patient to provide support to the patients to handle their conflict situation in family system therapy. Considering this, it can be stated that there are some major elements in family system therapy. As per the view of Zafra, (2016), there are four subsystems in family system therapy. They are parental relationship, parent-child relationship, relationship with siblings and overarching family system. Each system is correlated with each other. Parental subsystem defines that parents focus extra attention on any specific child's action. Parent-child subsystem depicts that if parents find something in the behaviour of their children, then, they perceive with fear. Along with that, the siblings' subsystem states the relationship between brothers and sisters in the family and lastly overarching family system depicts the structural relationship between family members.
3. Application, comparison and contrast between the chosen counselling theories in the context of the chosen case study
- Outline of the ethical and legal issues
Considering the case study of Tom, it can be stated, person-centred therapy could be effective to resolve the behavioural issue. However, in order to apply the person-centred therapy, the counsellors can face some ethical issues. Professional, ethical issues such as sincerity, humility, courage, respect and others are highly related to this therapy as counsellors will apply the therapy on the basis of the informed information by Tom, but to provide proper service, it is needed to raise the ethical limits of disciplinary codes.
On the other hand, in family systems, ethical therapy issues are also presented because the responsibility of the counsellor revolves around Tom, who is the client. That is why as family members of Tom will be included in family system therapy, therefore the ethical dilemma between disciplinary codes and patient situations will restrict the proper application of this therapy.
- Use of the chosen two counselling theories
In the view of Velasquez & Montiel, (2018), counsellors need to concentrate on three core conditions of person-centred therapy properly. Therefore, in order to apply the therapy properly, it is required to follow the below steps:
-will set a clear boundary
-Encourage Tom to state his issue
-will remain silent while Tom will define his issue
-will provide utmost concentration on Tom’s sayings and will not be judgemental in any situation.
In the application of family system therapy, there are a number of models that are used. Considering the case of Tom, it can be stated that a structural model will be appropriate to resolve his issue through this therapy. As structural family therapy theory depicts that the major reasons of behavioural issues are presented in the structure of the family, therefore it is chosen because Tom does not share a good relationship with his brother Steve and his mother. That is why family involvement is necessary in the case of Tom to help him to overcome his situation.
- Suggestion for the client
The suggestion for Tom is to take the initiative to improve his relationship with his mother and brother. As per the view of Anderson and Stevenson (2019), sharing bonding with family is one of the effective ways to relieve stress in life. Apart from this, it is suggested that he needs to involve himself in some productive work. Therefore, he could overcome his past experience and lead a healthy life.
- Required number of sessions
In order to resolve the problem of Tom with person-centred therapy, three sessions are needed, and Tom needs to corporate with his counsellor during the therapy.
On the contrary, it is estimated that five sessions will be needed to treat the issue of Tom with family system therapy because family bonding is not strong between Tom and his family.
4. Best counselling theory considering the issue of the client
From the analysis, it can be stated in the case of Tom to choose person-centred therapy. In order to treat his problem, this therapy will be based through this therapy, Tom will share all his past experience and mental dilemma with the counsellor and in this way. Further, it will be possible to improve Tom's situation quickly.
Gaps in literature
The gaps in the chosen literature have limited the outcome of the study. Some of the chosen literature were not consistent with the topic; that is why limitations were faced with understanding the chosen counselling theories. Along with that in some chosen literature, the description of the theories was complex which resulted in facing issue in gathering knowledge about the counselling theories properly.
The paper is based on counselling theories, and it has been observed that different counselling theories are used to resolve the issue of different types of patients. Through the case study of Tom, it can be stated that the application of proper counselling theory will be effective to help Tom to overcome his situation.
Considering the overall discussion about counselling theories, I can mention that with the effective usage of counselling therapies, it is possible to treat the mental issues of the patients easily. I have learned that first, it is needed to analyse the situation of the patient properly. After that, I was considering the issues of the patients; it is needed to apply the counselling therapy. Along with that as a counsellor, I need to emphasise on the proper implementation of the therapy by following the appropriate techniques and models. Along with that, I have learnt a counsellor needs to handle the patients with utmost care.