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CARC103 Review Of Courses Weekly Lecture Materials: Content Analysis Assessment 3 Answer


COURSE:      Bachelor of Information Technology  
Computer Architecture 
Unit Code:   
Type of Assessment:   
Assessment 3 – Content Analysis (Reflective Journal)   
3,000 words 
Unit Learning  
Outcomes addressed:  
Upon successful completion of this unit students should be able to:  
  1. Describe the elements of IT including hardware, software, communications and networks 
  2. Describe and evaluate concepts and elements of operating systems 
  3. Describe and illustrate appropriate use of data storage and manipulation 4. Describe and illustrate the use of operating systems in device management, process management, scheduling and dispatching 
5. Describe the major issues in enterprise integration platform selection 
Total Mark:  
50 marks  
50% of the unit total marks 


Students are required to analyse the weekly lecture material of weeks 1 to 11 and create concise content analysis summaries of the theoretical concepts contained in the course lecture slides.  

Where the lab content or information contained in technical articles from the Internet or books helps to fully describe the lecture slide content, discussion of such theoretical articles or discussion of the lab material should be included in the content analysis.  

The document structure is as follows (3000 Words):  

  1. Title Page  
  2. Introduction (100 words)  
  3. Background (100 words)  
  4. Content analysis (reflective journals) for each week from 1 to 11 (2750 words; 250 words per week): 
    1. Theoretical Discussion  
      1. Important topics covered  
      2. Definitions 
  5. Interpretations of the contents  
    1. What are the most important/useful/relevant information about the content? c. Outcome  

i. What have I learned from this?  

  1. Conclusion (50 words)  

Your report must include:  

  • At least five references, out of which, three references must be from academic resources. 
  • Harvard Australian referencing for any sources you use.  
  • Refer to the Academic Learning Skills student guide on Referencing. 


1. Introduction

In this assessment report, we will review our course's weekly lecture materials that are given to us. We prepared a summary report of the course content after a thorough review of the contents and summarised all the theoretical concepts that we have learned from those contents. The prepared report summarises the theoretical discussion of each week's content, important topics, definitions, and other useful content information. Every week, we have summarized the lesson learned from the contents of that week. An entire report is concluded at the end of the report with the relevant resources used in preparing the report.

2. Background

The content of CA is entirely linked to computers and technological information. It provides a higher-level understanding of basic machine understanding. This requires basic component knowledge of computer components such as the central processing unit (CPU), hard drives, other hardware, operating system, etc. to install an operating system update and troubleshoot, administer and maintain computer user accounts. This lecture also offers knowledge about basic cloud computing and virtualization.

3. Content analysis

  • Week 1
  • Theoretical discussion

In this chapter, we will discuss the basic elements of a computer such as memory, CPU, input, and output devices. A byte is the basic unit of memory. Memory can be classified into two categories which are volatile (RAM) and non-volatile (ROM).  On the basis of technology, it can be further classified as DRAM, PROM, F-PROM, REPROM, EAROM. Memory has characteristics like access time, internally organizedtechnology, and size. A Processor consists of a processing unit, control unit, and internal buses. The external representation of data is not directly understandable by the machine, it requires coding into an internal representation. In an Internal Representation, the data is represented in form of logical symbols denoted 0 and 1. IEEE-754 is a standard to represent a binary floating-point number. 

1. Interpretations of the contents

This chapter has detailed information about the basic components of a computer system, memory, types, characteristics, and representation of data. The conversation of data from external representation to binaryIEEE 754 is recommended as a standard for binary floating-point representation. 

2. Outcome

After completing this chapter, we know computer components and memory, its types, characteristics. We have also learned representation of the number system with a conversation between the number system. 

  • Week 2
  • Theoretical discussion

In this chapter, we will discuss the operating System Fundamentals. It provides detailed knowledge about the operating system concepts, details of multitasking and single-tasking, and working. The computer function and features can be broken down into three basic tasks which are Input, Processing, and Output. The operating system handles input/output functions that are used by other system hardware like input, output devices, network communication, etc. The types of OSs covered in this chapter are the Desktop Operating system and Client Operating system. A multiuser system can support multiple hardware and software in an OS in a client/server system or cloud. The elements of an operating system are the kernel, resource manager, device drivers, application software, and BIOS that works differently with different functions. 

1. Interpretations of the contents

This chapter provides detailed information about the operating system. A Comparison between Desktop Operating System and Client Operating System is given. Functions of Operating System in managing Input-output Functions are also explained. 

2. Outcome

After completing this chapter, we have knowledge about all the concepts of an operating system including its types, working, core components, I/O functions, common types of the operating system as desktop and server, history, essential hardware. 

  • Week 3
  • Theoretical discussion

In this chapter we will discuss the features of modern operating systems such as Microsoft, Unix and Unix like operating systems, Mac OS and Mac OS X. Various types of operating systems are provided by Microsoft Windows, such as DOS, Windows 3.x, 95, 98, Me, NT, 2000, Server 2000 (advance and data center), XP, Server 2003, Vista, Windows 7, and many more. Although operating systems like Unix and Unix have so many different formats that are also used in so many systems today, such as Red Hat Linux, Ubuntu, Debian, etc. Microsoft OSs often run with a GUI interface, while Unix-based OSs often run with a command line or terminal. Mac OS works with a graphical interface like Microsoft. Mac OS X is built on Darwin Unix with BSD Unix distribution. Mac OS X also has different releases with different features. 

1. Interpretations of the contents

This chapter provides knowledge of an operating system and provides a comparison between different types of different types of operating systems. The most common operating systems used today include Unix, Microsoft, and Mac. There are so many different roles for server operating systems, such as virtual servers, clustering, SANS, network management, and security features.

2. Outcome

After completing this chapter, we have understood the working and functioning of different operating systems like Windows, Unix, and Mac OS. We have known about their different editions and their specific features and functions. 

  • Week 4
  • Theoretical discussion

In this chapter, we will discuss the central processing unit with its detailed functions and features including its various manufacturers. CPU Chip is responsible to perform actual computational and logical work. A Core is a section of the processor that actually does the reading and execution of instructions. CPU consists of three basic units which are a control unit, arithmetic logic unit, and system bus. Now a times CPU is mainly designed by two structure RISC and CISC which have many different features like speed, cache size, type of bus, etc. There are many manufacturers of the processor in which Intel is one of the most used brands which produce a wide range of powerful processor. AMD is one of the rivals of Intel which also produce powerful processors with different range. Besides these two, there are some other processor brands that are there such as PowerPC, SPARC, Motorola, and Alpha. 

1. Interpretations of the contents

This chapter provides detailed information about the Central Processing Unit (CPU). A multicore CPU has two or more cores. The main difference between the two design types is the number of different instructions the chip can process. One of the main functions of the operating system is to provide the interface between the various application programs running on a computer and the hardware inside.

2. Outcome

After completing this chapter, we have to understand the functioning central processing unit with all its features. We got to know about different types of CPUs and their manufactures including their specific functionalities. 

  • Week 5
  • Theoretical discussion

In this chapter, we will discuss the file system. All information stored on a computer’s hard disk is managed, stored, and retrieved through a file systemThe file system allocates locations on a disk for storage and it keeps a record of where specific information is kept. File systems used by operating systems perform the following general tasks providing a convenient interface for users and applications, a hierarchical structure to organize files, Store file metadata, Organize space on a storage device. Storage device uses partitioning using a suitable file system like NTFS or FAT. New Technology File System (NTFS) The file storage system that is the native system in Windows versions. Windows XP through Windows Server 2008 R2 supports three files systems: Extended FAT16FAT32NTFSWindows 8, Windows Server 2012, and later versions also support ReFS.

1. Interpretations of the contents

This chapter provides detailed information about the basic function of the operating system and file systems. It also provides detailed information about the Storage devices data organization, its formatting and gives an idea of clusters in disc space

2. Outcome

After completing this chapter, we are able to understand all the functions of a file system with its types and uses in the different operating systems. 

  • Week 6
  • Theoretical discussion

In this chapter, we will discuss upgrading and installing an operating system. We need to have certain specific specifications to install an OS, such as minimum hardware requirements, etc. Installation can be carried out as a clean installation and update installation using two methods. Three basic steps, such as planning, installation, and set up, involve the installation of a new OS. There are so many details that you need to enter when installing an OS, such as product key, file system, partition details, etc. Each type of OS has distinct specifications for hardware and compatibility. Migration is a term used when the current OS version did not support new software and when it didn’t have new security features. Before performing a migration, we need to back up the current system data in a suitable storage device and conduct a test migration before it. The chapter includes installation and updates information for Windows 10, Windows Server 2012 /R2, Linux (Fedora 23), and Mac OS X. Depending on the type of operating system, all these processes have different installation and update processes. For every update, every OS vendor provides regular security patches and bug fixes for upgrades. After the installation is complete, we can update windows, Linux, and Mac OS for each operating system.

1. Interpretations of the contents

This chapter provides details about the different types of operating system installation. When we need to install the OS on a new computer and update installation is done when an older OS is already installed, a clean installation is carried out. We need to check the basic specifications before downloading an OS, and we need to back up all the required files and data when upgrading. Installing updates regularly after installing an OS is a good idea.

2. Outcome

After completing this chapter, we have understoohow the process of installing and upgrading operating system work. Pre- and post-installation requirements, such as testing the minimum installation requirements and testing for daily updates after installation, need to be determined.

  • Week 7
  • Theoretical discussion

In this, we will discuss configuring input and output devices. An operating system's primary purpose is to provide a simple I / O purpose to serve the application. This will be achieved by OS-controlled software and hardware. Device drivers and adapters vary from OS to OS, but they have different features. Windows has a Device Manager option that allows you to install and update a Windows driver. If there is a kernel in the Unix or Linux OS, it manages the drivers in the form of kernel modules and a loadable module. Drivers are managed using device special files in Unix which are three types as block special file, character special file, and named pipes. The Mac OS comes with installed device drivers for almost all types of devices. Some standard input devices are keyboard, mouse, touchpad or digital pads, scanner, joystick, microphone, etc. There are so many types of printers that various types of OSs are built differently. The output devices that are often used with a computer system are printers and display units. Digital video, sound cards, etc. are several other output machines. As a basic component of input and output systems, circuit boards are used. The greatest enemy of a circuit board is static electricity. 

1. Interpretations of the contents

This chapter provides detailed information about the basics of an OShow it handles the communication between input and output devices with the help of device drivers and hardware. An OS has a device driver directly installed by the manufacturer by providing a CD/DVD. In windows, devices can be managed using the device wizard, PnP, control panel, and device manager. It is handled by device-specific files in Unix and most devices come with the OS on Mac OS X. There are so many kinds of input devices, such as keyboards, joysticks, scanners, gamepads, optical sound systems, etc.

2. Outcome

 After completing this chapter, wwe are able to understand the working of input and output devices using system driver software. In various operating structures, this is achieved differently. Understand the device driver principle and how all input devices and the installation of a printer manage the device drivers of an OS.

  • Week 8
  • Theoretical discussion

In this chapter, we will discuss using and configuring storage devices. A repository is a digital medium from which data can be written and read. For long-term storage, there are various types of storage devices used. You can access the storage using different methods, such as local, DAS, NAS, or SAN. The key problem in these storage styles is disc space and storage that can be handled using methods such as RAID or SSD. The most common type of disk interfaces is SATA, SCSI, SAS, etc. Some public types of volumes used by an OS are unanalysable, spanned and RAID volumes. Common RAID measures are 1 (mirror) and 5 (striping with parity) which are used with the basic or dynamic disk. Virtual storage using storage pools also handles storage space. Data is stored off-site in cloud storage that is managed by the hosting company. Different disc space management applications are available on Linux, Windows, and Mac OS X.

1. Interpretations of the contents

This chapter provides us the knowledge about storage media that is used to write and retrieve data. Local, DAS, SAN, and NAS are the principal storage access methods. A local disc is known as a physical and logical disc and a simple and dynamic disc type of disc. Data is stored off-site in cloud storage and managed by the hosting company. Tape backups are inexpensive and traditional options for storing large amounts of information. Different storage management tools are used in various operating systems like disk management and command-line tool in Unix and Mac OS.

2. Outcome

After completing this chapter we are able to understand the concept of basic storage devices. It uses various storage options for storing local or cloud storage information. And the various technologies that are used in various operating systems as storage options.

  • Week 9
  • Theoretical discussion

In this chapter, we will discuss the fundamentals of cloud computing and virtualization. In order to simulate device hardware and BIOS, a virtual environment helps us to build a machine environment where we can run multiple OSs. Hypervisor as type 1-bare metal and type 2-hosted virtualization is a platform used mainly for virtualization. Hosted virtualization is mainly used today by many applications, such as VMware workstation pro, match, Microsoft virtual PC, and virtual box, which are offered. While the bare-metal virtualization uses united servers in test installation, upgrades, and test applications. This type of virtualization is provided by Citrix Xen server and VMware vSphere. Cloud computing is a paradigm where servers on the internet are managed by applications, data, and processing. With so many benefits, this strategy would minimize costs. Three main categories, such as SaaS, PaaS, IaaS, offer cloud services. These services can be used in private and public clouds.

1. Interpretations of the contents

This chapter provides information regarding virtualization, cloud computing, and all the related technology. The host and bare metal are used in two main categories of virtualization. Hosted virtualization install guest on the desktop OS using VMware, Virtual PC, and VirtualBox. While bare-metal virtualization, like data centers, is used in production virtualization. Cloud computing is a data model where servers on the internet handle data, software, and processing power.

2. Outcome

After completing this chapter, we have understood functioning of virtualisation, its types and the technology used in it. We have also learnt about the concept of cloud computing and its implementation in daily tasks.

  • Week 10
  • Theoretical discussion

In this chapter, we will discuss resource sharing and working with accounts or remote. User accounts and community account permissions manage power over the services. The user account has two primary features, such as user authentication and user information preservation. Groups are used to organize users in order to manage them effectively. It is handled by active directory in Windows and Linux and user & gr in Mac OS X. The resource sharing involves file and printer sharing on different operating systems such as Windows, Linux, and Mac OS X. Each of these uses different methods for sharing these resources like windows support SMB, Linux support Samba and Mac OS X support SMB protocol. The redirector intercepts the request when an application or user needs a resource and examines it to determine if the resource is a local ups tool. 

1. Interpretations of the contents

This chapter provides knowledge about printer and file sharing including their access control and management. The user account and groups are two key elements for user and group management. All these elements in different OSs are handled using different methods.

2. Outcome

After completing this chapter, we are able to get used to the concept of user account and groups. We have also learned about the sharing of files and printers managing access control using users and groups.

  • Week 11
  • Theoretical discussion

In this chapter, we will discuss the operating system management and its maintenance. A file system is linked closely to the structure of a folder. The file structure allows easy maintenance of a computer over a long period. We periodically find and remove unused files on an OS as an essential activity. There are several file managements tools, such as Windows disc clean up, Linux command-line tools, and Mac OS X utilities. In addition to this, there are many other ways to preserve a disc, such as defragmentation, transferring files, disc repair, and RAID. Making daily backups is one of the easiest ways to handle an OS. Whenever we install software, it is important to check if the software is compatible with the system operating system and hardware

1. Interpretations of the contents

This chapter provides us with knowledge of maintaining the file system with a suitable folder structure. Best practice involves using software to identify and uninstall unused files according to the operating system used. Disk management tools such as disc repair, defragmentation, or RAID may also be used. We should make backups regularly and must use optimizing software for the proper functioning of the computer.

2. Outcome

After completing this chapter, we are able to understand the concepts of maintaining a disk in different types of the operating systems using different tools. 

3. Conclusion

The primary information obtained from week 1 to week 11 was explored in this content review study. With the key lessons from that week, we present the topics of each week. Each chapter of the week is evaluated separately to extract the important results from that week. Each phase of this report is divided into three sections where important subjects, concepts, and learning outcomes from that chapter of the week are addressed. The format provided for use in the instructions is also followed by the study. 

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