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BUSI 1689 Uptake Of Newly Introduced Vaccine: Public Health Organizations Assessment Answer

BUSI 1689 Management, Leadership & Enterprise in Public Health Organisations

 Assessment Details
Students will be required to:
·      Choose one of these major global public health issues with leadership and management ramifications for public health organisations (public or private sector) - Brain drain of medical doctors from low- and middle-income settings, uptake of a newly introduced vaccines, tackling obesity at a policy level, social marketing of essential public health commodities. Prepare a conceptual paper that describes the problem and addresses it based on evidence-based, managerial and entrepreneurial approaches, as applicable.
·      Prepare a proposal that provides a critical analysis of the context and background to a public health issue, including previous attempts at resolution or improvement. The paper should include a set of recommendations to solve the problem consistent with the analysis and develop a business plan that incorporates all relevant component parts.



Essay Part A – Uptake of a Newly Introduced Vaccine


This essay aims to provide a piece of in-depth knowledge about a sustainable and effective Public Health Programme to uptake a newly introduced vaccine in the United Kingdom.  For this purpose, this paper will discuss the problems associated with it. It will address them based on the shreds of evidence from managerial and entrepreneurial approaches made in the past. It has been almost a year now that people from various demographic locations struggle with the issues caused due to COVID 19 pandemic (Choi et al., 2020). In the UK, almost 2.77 million people found affected by this virus, out of which more than 76000 people have lost their lives (Maringe et al., 2020). Thus, it became crucial for the national government and doctors to develop the vaccination for the virus as soon as possible. The vaccine for COVID 19 (UK) was introduced in December 2020 and named Pfizer Vaccine (World Health Organisation, 2020). Further, a reflection on the management strategies and behaviors and their application for public health organizations, will be echoed more comprehensively. 

Management Strategies and Behaviours

For Public Health Organisations, it becomes essential to consider the most efficient strategy and implications for better outputs and results. For this purpose, leadership in Global Public Health is given importance for conducting effective strategy implementations in the system. As per the recently established ACT (Access to COVID-19 Tools) Accelerator, the country's collaborative aim is to avail two billion doses of COVID-19 vaccine by the end of the year 2021 (Wendler et al., 2020). For this purpose, an effective management strategy will be required to be undertaking by the Independent Advisory Mechanisms on behalf of the global strategic advisory group of experts on immunization. For this purpose, various management strategies and behaviors must be imposed with relevant and respective governmental and non-governmental entities of the UK. These include the management structure, advocacy, resources, evidence-informed and ethical values-based national vaccination strategy, legal and regulatory framework for facilitating the vaccine deployment, the immunization service delivery modalities, supply chain management, human resources, security, vaccination data, and information management, safety monitoring, waste management, demand generation, communication, and community engagement (Rwitz, 2017). Implementing a vaccination strategy will require intersectional approaches and effective collaborations and partnerships with governmental and non-governmental bodies. For this purpose, the strategic apex and operating core are required to be integrated simultaneously along with technostructure and supporting staff. Below is the diagram elaborating on the entire system of micro and macro-environmental factors on strategic management.

Strategic Management Opportunities amid COVID-19

Figure 1: Strategic Management Opportunities amid COVID-19

(Source: Unger et al., 2020)

Similarly, for the allocation and prioritization of COVID-19 vaccines, considering the optimization of regulatory pathway becomes significantly essential for the management to implement as a strategy. On the other hand, considering the expedited marketing authorization with the WHO (World Health Organisation) guidelines and procedures are also essential (World Health Organisation, 2020). It is also essential to review the available shreds of evidence regularly to definere-access, and adapt the vaccination objectives more comprehensively from the economic context. It has also been found that for achieving the effectiveness in terms of immunization and service delivery modules of the newly introduced vaccine, identifying appropriate platforms and service delivery mechanisms will also play an essential part in quantifying the management strategies and behaviors. Further, another management strategy for the uptake of the newly introduced vaccine will include a reviewing process to analyze the existing immunization service delivery platforms' scope and capacity with appropriate modalities (Bielicki et al., 2020). Considering the supply chain management of the vaccination management and behavior in Public Health Organisation and entities, establishing an early communication with potential suppliers must be considered on a priority basis. It might also include various adaptations and standard operating procedures for security and waste management, but the strategic focus should be allocated with the immunization supplies. 

Model of Strategic Management and its Application 

Various methods could be adopted more appropriately for acknowledging the models of strategic management for problem-solving in a variety of organizational, environmental, and political contexts. These might include SWOT analysisStrategic Options Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice Approach, and other similar methods (Carli et al., 2020). Considering the most appropriate fit for the uptake of newly introduced vaccines in Public Health Organisations, a SWOT analysis will be the right fit for analyzing and solving the problems coming in between the implications. The SWOT analysis is a fundamental methodology utilized for an overview of the standards, an association, or a market, thus helping develop a strategy (Oham and Don, 2016). Its focal intention is to recognize the procedures that will make a plan of action that will best match the assets and abilities of an organization (or industry or market) to the requests of the most appropriate models. It includes two broad segments, namely the internal analysis and the external analysis. Under the internal analysis part, S and W are widely considered, which means the subject's Strengths and Weaknesses. On the other hand, the external analysis part includes O and T, which means the subject's Opportunities and Threats. Thus, this strategic management model might provide some quality analysis on the problem-solving part for a variety of organizational, economic, and cultural contexts. 

Strategic Management Process

Figure 2: Strategic Management Process

(Source: Robbins and Coulter, 2002)

Further, this strategic management model's application and implication is comprehensively wide and could be accumulated as the right fit for the given study (uptake of a newly introduced vaccine). From the organizational context of Public Health Services, the SWOT model's application is wide and could be adopted in almost every segment of the Public Health Organisation (Wang and Wang, 2020). The current problems that have been found common with the concept of up-taking the COVID 19 vaccine include cold storagedistributionsyringesneedles, and the threat of mismatch. In the UK, the medical attendants are assessed to oversee 200–500 immunizations/day in 1260 essential consideration organizations. In any event, one site would be open for extended periods each day (Wood et al., 2020). On average, as per the 365 days counting of a year, it would be a little more than 3 million every week. Mass locales intend to attempt 5000 immunizations for every middle/day that is somewhere around 35,000/week; 30 mass facilities would go through every one of 1,000,000 portions for each week until provisions increment impressively, which is a severe problem to be considered and solved by using the right model of strategic management. 

Implications for Current Strategy and Future Problem Solving

The previous strategic actions included various methods that could have been used to impose the vaccination process for COVID-19 and the trials. From past experiences, it could be concluded that the immunization strategy has been effective for most of the cases that were unlike COVID-19 and SARS. It was also called a multi-period immunization that was considered a risk-mitigation strategy used to match the duration of various essential elements (Jeyanathan et al., 2020). These mostly included assets and liabilities that collaboratively helped minimize the impact of interest rates over some time. This strategic action first opted to be used for the uptake of the newly introduced virus. Still, the allotment and segmentation issues were found, disrupting the implementations of the same over the Public Health Organisations. The current strategy is not that complex and follows a conventional way out for the awareness of the vaccine's usage that might help the citizens and workers of the nation get immune within a lesser period. The learning and adaptation from the previous strategic action that is immunization strategy has helped avoid various barriers that could have made the process of vaccination longer and time-consuming. Below is a flow elaboration of the Public Sector functions and objectives that will be taken into consideration more significantly while addressing the problem-solving processes. Public Sector Functions and Objectives 1

Public Sector Functions and Objectives 2

Figure 3: Public Sector Functions and Objectives

(Source: Radulescu and Cavanagh, 2020)

Further, the impacts of previous strategic action will also impact future problem-solving so that the vaccination or trails might get anti-disrupted with the allocations. The current strategy is rater simpler and easier to monitor than the immunization strategy used in the past. Various other processes got in touch with the same management strategies to utilize in their culture (Frederiksen et al., 2020). For this purpose, various strategic actions and behaviors have been imposed that includes the management structure, advocacy, resources, evidence-informed and ethical values-based national vaccination strategy, legal and regulatory framework for facilitating the vaccine deployment, the immunization service delivery modalities, supply chain management, human resources, security, vaccination data, and information management, safety monitoring, waste management, demand generation, communication, and community engagement. Thus, the analytics from these studies will impact future decisions for problem-solving so that minimal damage would be found occurring during the processing of vaccination for diseases or viruses. 


To conclude, this essay aimed to provide in-depth knowledge about a sustainable and effective Public Health Programme to uptake a newly introduced vaccine in the United Kingdom.  For this purpose, the essay has discussed various problems associated with it and have address is based on the shreds of evidence from managerial and entrepreneurial approaches made in past and present. The essay has also echoed various management strategies and behaviors that have been found impacting vaccination more comprehensively. Further, it has also included a discussion on SWOT analysis as the most appropriate strategic management model and its application concerning past and future considerations. Lastly, the essay has well sufficiently evaluated and reflected on previous strategic action and its implications for current strategy and future problem-solving issues. 

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